Yeast extract

September 2, 2019

Yeast extract is the common name for various
forms of processed yeast products made by extracting the cell contents; they are used
as food additives or flavourings, or as nutrients for bacterial culture media. They are often used to create savoury flavours
and umami taste sensations, and can be found in a large variety of packaged food including
frozen meals, crackers, snack foods, gravy, stock and more. Yeast extracts in liquid form can be dried
to a light paste or a dry powder. Yeast extracts, as well as fermented foods,
contain glutamic acid which, in solution with sodium ions, is the same as monosodium glutamate. Autolyzed yeast
Autolyzed yeast or autolyzed yeast extract consists of concentrations of yeast cells
that are allowed to die and break up, so that the yeasts’ endogenous digestive enzymes
break their proteins down into simpler compounds. Yeast autolysates are used in Vegemite, Marmite,
Promite, Oxo, Cenovis, Vitam-R and Maggi sauce. Bovril switched from beef extract to yeast
extract for 2005 and most of 2006, but later switched back. The general method for making yeast extract
for food products such as Vegemite and Marmite on a commercial scale is to add sodium chloride
to a suspension of yeast, making the solution hypertonic, which leads to the cells shrivelling
up; this triggers autolysis, in which the yeast self-destructs. The dying yeast cells are then heated to complete
their breakdown, after which the husks are separated. Removing the cell walls concentrates the flavours
and changes the texture. Yeast extract is used as a flavour enhancer
in processed foods of all kinds. Hydrolyzed yeast
Hydrolyzed yeast or hydrolyzed yeast extract is another version used as a flavour enhancer. Exogenous enzymes or acids are used to hydrolyze
the proteins. References Herbst, Sharon. Food Lover’s Companion. Hauppauge, New York: Barron’s Educational
Series, Inc.  External links Homepage of Eurasyp

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