Articles, Blog

Why we have virus outbreaks & how we can prevent them | Nathan Wolfe

January 6, 2020


When most people think about the beginnings of AIDS, they’re gonna think back to the 1980s. And certainly, this was the decade in which we discovered AIDS and the virus that causes it, HIV. But in fact this virus crossed over into humans many decades before, from chimpanzees, where the virus originated, into humans who hunt these apes. This photo was taken before the Great Depression in Brazzaville, Congo. At this time, there were thousands of individuals, we think, that were infected with HIV. So I have a couple of really important questions for you. If this virus was in thousands of individuals at this point, why was it the case that it took us until 1984 to be able to discover this virus? OK now, more importantly, had we been there in the ’40s and ’50s, ’60s, had we seen this disease, had we understood exactly what was going on with it, how might that have changed and completely transformed the nature of the way this pandemic moved? In fact, this is not unique to HIV. The vast majority of viruses come from animals. And you can kind of think of this as a pyramid of this bubbling up of viruses from animals into human populations. But only at the very top of this pyramid do these things become completely human. Nevertheless, we spend the vast majority of our energy focused on this level of the pyramid, trying to tackle things that are already completely adapted to human beings, that are going to be very very difficult to address — as we’ve seen in the case of HIV. So during the last 15 years, I’ve been working to actually study the earlier interface here — what I’ve labeled “viral chatter,” which was a term coined by my mentor Don Burke. This is the idea that we can study the sort of pinging of these viruses into human populations, the movement of these agents over into humans; and by capturing this moment, we might be able to move to a situation where we can catch them early. OK, so this is a picture, and I’m going to show you some pictures now from the field. This is a picture of a central African hunter. It’s actually a fairly common picture. One of the things I want you to note from it is blood — that you see a tremendous amount of blood contact. This was absolutely key for us. This is a very intimate form of connection. So if we’re going to study viral chatter, we need to get to these populations who have intensive contact with wild animals. And so we’ve been studying people like this individual. We collect blood from them, other specimens. We look at the diseases, which are in the animals as well as the humans. And ideally, this is going to allow us to catch these things early on, as they’re moving over into human populations. And the basic objective of this work is not to just go out once and look at these individuals, but to establish thousands of individuals in these populations that we would monitor continuously on a regular basis. When they were sick, we would collect specimens from them. We would actually enlist them — which we’ve done now — to collect specimens from animals. We give them these little pieces of filter paper. When they sample from animals, they collect the blood on the filter paper and this allows us to identify yet-unknown viruses from exactly the right animals — the ones that are actually being hunted. (Video) Narrator: Deep in a remote region of Cameroon, two hunters stalk their prey. Their names are Patrice and Patee. They’re searching for bush meat; forest animals they can kill to feed their families. Patrice and Patee set out most days to go out hunting in the forest around their homes. They have a series of traps, of snares that they’ve set up to catch wild pigs, snakes, monkeys, rodents — anything they can, really. Patrice and Patee have been out for hours but found nothing. The animals are simply gone. We stop for a drink of water. Then there is a rustle in the brush. A group of hunters approach, their packs loaded with wild game. There’s at least three viruses that you know about, which are in this particular monkey. Nathan Wolfe: This species, yeah. And there’s many many more pathogens that are present in these animals. These individuals are at specific risk, particularly if there’s blood contact, they’re at risk for transmission and possibly infection with novel viruses. Narrator: As the hunters display their kills, something surprising happens. They show us filter paper they’ve used to collect the animals’ blood. The blood will be tested for zoonotic viruses, part of a program Dr. Wolfe has spent years setting up. NW: So this is from this animal right here, Greater Spot-Nosed Guenon. Every person who has one of those filter papers has at least, at a minimum, been through our basic health education about the risks associated with these activities, which presumably, from our perspective, gives them the ability to decrease their own risk, and then obviously the risk to their families, the village, the country, and the world. NW: OK, before I continue, I think it’s important to take just a moment to talk about bush meat. Bush meat is the hunting of wild game. OK? And you can consider all sorts of different bush meat. I’m going to be talking about this. When your children and grandchildren sort of pose questions to you about this period of time, one of the things they’re gonna ask you, is how it was they we allowed some of our closest living relatives, some of the most valuable and endangered species on our planet, to go extinct because we weren’t able to address some of the issues of poverty in these parts of the world. But in fact that’s not the only question they’re going to ask you about this. They’re also going to ask you the question that when we knew that this was the way that HIV entered into the human population, and that other diseases had the potential to enter like this, why did we let these behaviors continue? Why did we not find some other solution to this? They’re going to say, in regions of profound instability throughout the world, where you have intense poverty, where populations are growing and you don’t have sustainable resources like this, this is going to lead to food insecurity. But they’re also going to ask you probably a different question. It’s one that I think we all need to ask ourselves, which is, why we thought the responsibility rested with this individual here. Now this is the individual — you can see just right up over his right shoulder — this is the individual that hunted the monkey from the last picture that I showed you. OK, take a look at his shirt. You know, take a look at his face. Bush meat is one of the central crises, which is occurring in our population right now, in humanity, on this planet. But it can’t be the fault of somebody like this. OK? And solving it cannot be his responsibility alone. There’s no easy solutions, but what I’m saying to you is that we neglect this problem at our own peril. So, in 1998, along with my mentors Don Burke and Colonel Mpoudi-Ngole, we went to actually start this work in Central Africa, to work with hunters in this part of the world. And my job — at that time I was a post-doctoral fellow, and I was really tasked with setting this up. So I said to myself, “OK, great — we’re gonna collect all kinds of specimens. We’re gonna go to all these different locations. It’s going to be wonderful.” You know, I looked at the map; I picked out 17 sites; I figured, no problem. (Laughter) Needless to say, I was drastically wrong. This is challenging work to do. Fortunately, I had and continue to have an absolutely wonderful team of colleagues and collaborators in my own team, and that’s the only way that this work can really occur. We have a whole range of challenges about this work. One of them is just obtaining trust from individuals that we work with in the field. The person you see on the right hand side is Paul DeLong-Minutu. He’s one of the best communicators that I’ve really ever dealt with. When I arrived I didn’t speak a word of French, and I still seemed to understand what it was he was saying. Paul worked for years on the Cameroonian national radio and television, and he spoke about health issues. He was a health correspondent. So we figured we’d hire this person — when we got there he could be a great communicator. When we would get to these rural villages, though, what we found out is that no one had television, so they wouldn’t recognize his face. But — when he began to speak they would actually recognize his voice from the radio. And this was somebody who had incredible potential to spread aspects of our message, whether it be with regards to wildlife conservation or health prevention. Often we run into obstacles. This is us coming back from one of these very rural sites, with specimens from 200 individuals that we needed to get back to the lab within 48 hours. I like to show this shot — this is Ubald Tamoufe, who’s the lead investigator in our Cameroon site. Ubald laughs at me when I show this photo because of course you can’t see his face. But the reason I like to show the shot is because you can see that he’s about to solve this problem. (Laughter) Which — which he did, which he did. Just a few quick before and after shots. This was our laboratory before. This is what it looks like now. Early on, in order to ship our specimens, we had to have dry ice. To get dry ice we had to go to the breweries — beg, borrow, steal to get these folks to give it to us. Now we have our own liquid nitrogen. I like to call our laboratory the coldest place in Central Africa — it might be. And here’s a shot of me, this is the before shot of me. (Laughter) No comment. So what happened? So during the 10 years that we’ve been doing this work, we actually surprised ourselves. We made a number of discoveries. And what we’ve found is that if you look in the right place, you can actually monitor the flow of these viruses into human populations. That gave us a tremendous amount of hope. What we’ve found is a whole range of new viruses in these individuals, including new viruses in the same group as HIV — so, brand new retroviruses. And let’s face it, any new retrovirus in the human population — it’s something we should be aware of. It’s something we should be following. It’s not something that we should be surprised by. Needless to say in the past these viruses entering into these rural communities might very well have gone extinct. That’s no longer the case. Logging roads provide access to urban areas. And critically, what happens in central Africa doesn’t stay in Central Africa. So, once we discovered that it was really possible that we could actually do this monitoring, we decided to move this from research, to really attempt to phase up to a global monitoring effort. Through generous support and partnership scientifically with Google.org and the Skoll Foundation, we were able to start the Global Viral Forecasting Initiative and begin work in four different sites in Africa and Asia. Needless to say, different populations from different parts of the world have different sorts of contact. So it’s not just hunters in Central Africa. It’s also working in live animal markets — these wet markets — which is exactly the place where SARS emerged in Asia. But really, this is just the beginning from our perspective. Our objective right now, in addition to deploying to these sites and getting everything moving, is to identify new partners because we feel like this effort needs to be extended to probably 20 or more sites throughout the world — to viral hotspots — because really the idea here is to cast an incredibly wide net so that we can catch these things, ideally, before they make it to blood banks, sexual networks, airplanes. And that’s really our objective. There was a time not very long ago when the discovery of unknown organisms was something that held incredible awe for us. It had potential to really change the way that we saw ourselves, and thought about ourselves. Many people, I think, on our planet right now despair, and they think we’ve reached a point where we’ve discovered most of the things. I’m going tell you right now: please don’t despair. If an intelligent extra-terrestrial was taxed with writing the encyclopedia of life on our planet, 27 out of 30 of these volumes would be devoted to bacteria and virus, with just a few of the volumes left for plants, fungus and animals, humans being a footnote; interesting footnote but a footnote nonetheless. This is honestly the most exciting period ever for the study of unknown life forms on our planet. The dominant things that exist here we know almost nothing about. And yet finally, we have the tools, which will allow us to actually explore that world and understand them. Thank you very much. (Applause)

100 Comments

  • Reply Yamandon May 27, 2009 at 1:27 am

    damn

  • Reply Kyle Mackay May 27, 2009 at 11:14 pm

    i want to see a pic of this So called virus HIV. This virus BS is gettin old.

  • Reply Mackadoeshez May 28, 2009 at 11:42 pm

    I bet the Natives thank the Pilgrims daily for the Small Pox laced blankets they gave the Natives as gifts.

    Discovered by whom?

    People where already living here. lol

    Colonialism/Imperialism ='s luciferianism- just peep out all the Wash, DC symbolism from pagan Sumeria/Babylon/Egypt/Assyria/Medo Persia/Rome & Greece.

  • Reply freefall88 May 31, 2009 at 8:35 am

    Very noble work, I hope they continue expanding and have governments actually listen to them

  • Reply questfortruth85 May 31, 2009 at 5:36 pm

    The OPV theory has been disproved.
    Cut hunter theory (what we see in this video) is the best we got

  • Reply 4EVERTAG1997 May 31, 2009 at 10:24 pm

    1. I am dead
    2. You are next
    3. Someone will kill you in the next 5 hours
    4. Post to 6 other videos or youll die

  • Reply X20c3nt June 1, 2009 at 10:04 pm

    1] Press number 6 on your keyboard three times
    [2] Think of a colour
    [3] Copy and paste this to any video but this
    [4] Refresh the page and look at all the text 666

  • Reply MrBeefy78 June 3, 2009 at 10:30 pm

    IM NOT TRYING TO ADVERTISE BUT IM ALITTLE SCARED ABOUT WHAT THIS SEES in 1908 a lady named sally rusa was in the woods looking for a dog until a ghost came and killed her so if ur reading this u will find a bloody body in your closet hanging there haunting you and will kill you and ur family and if u want to stop this just sends this to 6 videos in 30 mins or this will happen good luck!! and i only did this because it freaked me out o.o

  • Reply Ivan Matvijenko June 5, 2009 at 5:13 am

    many ppl invent virouses and pposibly terrozi goverment with out any one knowing that could be a heory too

  • Reply Ivan Matvijenko June 5, 2009 at 5:19 am

    man humans eat everything take chinese for example no ofece but snake dogs ellefants

  • Reply Galuche1L1U June 7, 2009 at 6:06 pm

    No, you also did this because you are retarded… ๐Ÿ™‚

  • Reply I am Rafizzle June 12, 2009 at 12:05 am

    I am writing this from my ipod

  • Reply shawondemand June 13, 2009 at 10:09 pm

    You're really fucking annoying do you know that?
    I had to put the fucking video into full screen mode because of retarded Christians like you.

    Christianity is for idiots.

  • Reply nade is June 15, 2009 at 4:47 am

    I agree, if you are Christian. Keep it to your fucking self. If you can come here and say shit about Jesus I can come here say shit about how Jesus was/is not real. Fuck you.

  • Reply Tr0llsNeverDie June 17, 2009 at 4:21 pm

    a doctor of bullshit.

  • Reply Coonetta Burbington June 17, 2009 at 4:26 pm

    Disease is created and spread by the Bilderburg group.

  • Reply NNN June 17, 2009 at 4:39 pm

    "He received his bachelors degree from Stanford in 1993 and his doctorate in Immunology & Infectious Diseases from Harvard in 1998." What have you done lately?

  • Reply LinkGrayX2 June 17, 2009 at 4:52 pm

    Usually in school you learn that if you're going to start an argument you need to back yourself up with reasons.

    Apparently you missed that, I don't know I'm just saying, that's what it looks like. "Christianity is stupid, I won't tell you why but JUST TRUST ME OK?"

  • Reply blainebell86 June 17, 2009 at 5:23 pm

    I think he has a great point here. Everyone else here who is calling him down should keep their opinions to themselves.

  • Reply jokee June 17, 2009 at 5:33 pm

    God is real, it is said in a book.

  • Reply LinkGrayX2 June 17, 2009 at 8:35 pm

    Morelike "God is real, nothing comes from nothing so we can rationally conclude that there was a beginning, and something intelligent sparked it all. The universe is expanding so if you go back in time long enough, you reach a beginning."

    God isn't real, my parents told me so when I was little. My parents are never wrong.

  • Reply jokee June 17, 2009 at 11:14 pm

    Then where did God come from? If you say nothing comes from nothing it means God is nothing.

    good fight.

  • Reply LinkGrayX2 June 17, 2009 at 11:38 pm

    If God is omnipotent then God is unbound by time, if God is unbound by time, God needs no beginning or end. God is timeless, you could say God always existed but that isn't really true, it's beyond mankind's grasp. You cannot perceive a lack of time, but we can know that it's possible using our current logic.

    gf

  • Reply jokee June 18, 2009 at 2:38 am

    f off i could give you tons of arguments but argumeting with a christian is like shooting with no bullets, there's no point.

  • Reply LinkGrayX2 June 18, 2009 at 3:06 am

    I'm not surprised that you're unable to come up with a rebuttal. Trying to argue with a militant atheist is pointless I suppose.

  • Reply jokee June 18, 2009 at 3:44 am

    Dude just f off arguing like that is pointless. There's just no way you're gonna make me believe in God and no way I can make you believe he doesn't exist.

  • Reply Anon386632 June 18, 2009 at 7:26 pm

    rofl im the same… i dont believe in god and i dont disbelieve in god… my belife is neutral…

  • Reply LinkGrayX2 June 18, 2009 at 11:30 pm

    Then don't start an argument you can't finish. Simple as that.

  • Reply Tairaa2 June 20, 2009 at 8:04 pm

    Our current logic doesn't find any reason suggesting that god exists.

    Only peoples faith. If God created everything it still came from nothing. ๐Ÿ˜‰

  • Reply LinkGrayX2 June 20, 2009 at 8:24 pm

    really because im pretty sure i just gave a few reasons why it does

    i can't really make sense of what you said after that considering that if I drop a nickel, you can't say "the nickel was dropped by nothing".

  • Reply Tairaa2 June 20, 2009 at 10:54 pm

    of course not. But picking up and dropping an object is wholly different from creating energy and matter.

    You gave a couple of reasons why YOUR logic says he does, not our collectic logic. Give one irrefutable reason why god should exist.

    If God was before everything, and created everything, it's still coming from nothing, coming into existence from nothingness. Regardless of how or why, it's the same. So it's more likely that this mechanism was triggered without intelligent design

  • Reply LinkGrayX2 June 21, 2009 at 1:31 am

    God is not nothingness.

    One refutable reason why God should exist? Refute the ones I've already given. No one else has so far, all people have done is offer alternatives that don't hold any ground. (i.e. matter always existed, which is impossible)

  • Reply david292978 June 21, 2009 at 3:53 am

    hiv and aids and all these desieses were man made by scientists and injected into the population of the world by the elites of the world in order to control the population

  • Reply tothboy01 June 21, 2009 at 6:29 am

    Gosh. God does not exist. He is a mythological character like Zeus, Ahura Mazda, Vishnu, Itzamma, etc. The God of the Old Testament in the Christian Bible, aka the God of the Jewish Tanakh, Yahweh aka the LORD was originally a Ugaritic Canaanite god who was amongst the Elohim, who were the sons of El, the supreme or high god of the Ugaritic Canaanite pantheon. Dumuzi in Sumerian mythology was resurrected long before Christianity existed. Jesus is a mythological character as well. Superstitions.

  • Reply Tairaa2 June 21, 2009 at 2:15 pm

    You haven't stated any reasons why it is probable that God exists actually, unless they are past page 2.

    Regardless of whether or not God made matter, it still came from nothing. As in, the matter appears where there was no matter before.This is inarguable.

    And you have no idea whether or not matter always existing is impossible, what evidence do you have to offer that supports this notion?

  • Reply LinkGrayX2 June 21, 2009 at 4:00 pm

    ctrl + f LinkGrayX2 in all comments. might be on page 2 but i doubt it. If all fails, search John Claytons DoesGodexist, I borrow a lot of his arguments.

    If God is omnipotent and exists out of time then God can surely create matter from nothing.

    Matter can't always exist because everything that is within physical limitations must have a beginning. Without a beginning, it cannot exist, because it never did to begin with. So the only way matter can always exist is if matter is God.

  • Reply tothboy01 June 21, 2009 at 9:55 pm

    LinkGrayX2, who says it is impossible for matter to have always existed? Are you basing that on the assumption that matter came into existence at the Big Bang? If so, let me inform you of something, because you seem to be ignorant of this knowledge. Science is a work in progress. In science, a fact is an observable phenomenon; a hypothesis is an explanation of an observable phenomenon; a theory is an explanation of an observable phenomenon that has been precisely tested and holds up to scrutiny.

  • Reply tothboy01 June 21, 2009 at 10:05 pm

    Having said all that, the Big Bang is a scientific theory. Is God a scientific theory? If so, what explanation of an observable phenomenon that has been tested and holds up to scrutiny suggests the existence of God? Since science is a work in progress, for all we know, matter could have always existed. And even if matter came into existence at the Big Bang, at least the Big Bang is a scientific theory? Is God a scientific theory?

  • Reply tothboy01 June 21, 2009 at 10:08 pm

    Oops, in my last comment to you, I put a question mark at the end of my second-last sentence. I meant to put a period.

  • Reply LinkGrayX2 June 22, 2009 at 2:14 am

    I was not basing this off of the Big Bang theory, but let me point out that as an atheist you should absolutely despise the big bang theory, considering it suggests a beginning. Science may be a work in progress but you can't just use ignorance to defend yourself, saying "I don't know, therefore I will dismiss your arguments."

  • Reply nickgen123 June 24, 2009 at 2:43 am

    your pathetic, stop dreaming in color and believing in every conspiracy

  • Reply nickgen123 June 24, 2009 at 2:43 am

    seriously you fuck…..so pathetic get a life

  • Reply Jimmy Rustles June 24, 2009 at 1:43 pm

    he doesn't hes just an ignorant fuck
    telling people to open up their mind.
    but im sure opening your mind doesn't mean believing every conspiracy you see on the internet.

  • Reply nickgen123 June 27, 2009 at 6:15 pm

    and why would you explain rats having desease, same for monkeys, just look it up if your not too lazy

  • Reply deathriders June 28, 2009 at 1:30 am

    yea im sure they would enjoy being like experiments

  • Reply Shoemaker hollow July 1, 2009 at 5:08 am

    OK guys if AIDS came from Africans by eating bush meat or they say monkeys , how come hundreds of years or 1000s of years the people there were eating bush meat if there was AIDS from that how come the people there didn't died of. and you know what HIV or AIDS will do to you. if you dont google it.

  • Reply Shoemaker hollow July 1, 2009 at 8:16 pm

    Viruses evolve you are right on that but to say the AIDS Virus didn't evolve when and now it did is just wrong read how Viruses evolve. the human flu Viruses one expl. and you know Viruses that are like AIDS and HIV when it come to human contact thoes humans will die of or AIDS Viruses will evolve or the human will difleb imminent to the HIV or the AIDS Virus.

  • Reply Shoemaker hollow July 3, 2009 at 4:20 am

    English is not my first English Language and im working on it. i cant write like you lol. thanks for the Re have nice day.

  • Reply weenersNbeans August 3, 2009 at 5:38 am

    brady ankleitus

  • Reply Kung Lek August 7, 2009 at 6:09 pm

    viruses are life forms as well

  • Reply Mighty Spider August 8, 2009 at 12:33 pm

    well said wizotch

  • Reply Garth Johnston August 10, 2009 at 7:08 am

    Wow, surprised at how off you are on this subject. Somebody's wasted time and money going down the wrong path.

  • Reply Jai666666666 August 10, 2009 at 1:58 pm

    Take the vaccine and the implants or you and your families will be destroyed, Satan will accept no resistance, join or die…, you are infected, you must join the machines, eat GMO foods, Pay more taxes, Obey to your Corporations, Buy Happy Meals and Vaccinate Your Children Often, have Your Pets Neutered and Sterilized, Buy more, Eat More, See Your Physicians, Take Your Pills, Obey All Corporations, Eat At Wendies, EAT, EAT, EAT.

  • Reply Heireau August 12, 2009 at 5:44 pm

    NEEDLESS TO SAY, Jai is a fatty. D:

  • Reply Anon386632 August 14, 2009 at 3:34 am

    first glance of the monkey i thought it was a se monster xD

    1:18

  • Reply Anon386632 August 14, 2009 at 3:36 am

    a sea monster***

    and i just noticed that there are 4 moneys

    im talking about the one above the bat in the sars catagory .. the light blue money…

    rofl idk why but for some fucked up reason i thought it was a sea monster…

  • Reply Bojaxs August 18, 2009 at 2:18 am

    Why would they create a virus that they are capable of getting infected from?

  • Reply Ijustneedthatsong August 22, 2009 at 9:15 pm

    You see, if everyone were vegetarians this never would have happened, or at the very least AIDS would be minimally spread throughout the world.

  • Reply Deathart Baggins August 25, 2009 at 3:35 am

    vegetarian is a quite unhealthy diet due to your body's need of protien which the main way we get protien is through meat

  • Reply Ijustneedthatsong August 25, 2009 at 9:27 am

    Absolutely untrue. Plentiful amounts of protein can be consumed through many, many, different means. You don't know what you're talking about. Even if there were finite amounts of protein available, but enough to survive, that would be well worth the prevention of such viruses as AIDS and "mad cow" which were originally spread through the consumption of meat.

  • Reply epshot August 27, 2009 at 12:44 pm

    thats rediculous. you must be a self righteous vegetarian type.

  • Reply epshot August 27, 2009 at 12:45 pm

    I'd like to see some proof of that. Post or PM me your referances and source material please.

  • Reply epshot August 27, 2009 at 10:31 pm

    I don't. I think you need a filet minon. wrapped in bacon, cooked rare. Vegetarians deserve as much gratification for not eating meat as omnivores like myself do for eating meat. Nobody deserves gratification for their eating habits. Dietary choices don't make you a better person. Thats my opinion and I'm entitled to it. It is also my opinion that vegetarians still cause animal death indirectly by supporting farm fields where farmers have the right to exterminate bugs and animals.

  • Reply Ijustneedthatsong August 29, 2009 at 1:58 am

    Think what you may. And I don't support that.

  • Reply shoopdog August 31, 2009 at 3:20 am

    Saying that vegetarianism would have stopped or minimized the spread of AIDS is a ridiculous and self-serving statement. Any benign interaction with an infected animal could potentially spread the disease. From that point on, the danger is spreading from human to human contact. Get off your soapbox.

  • Reply Ijustneedthatsong August 31, 2009 at 8:35 am

    So you're saying if you touch an infected animal you have just as high a risk to get AIDS as you do if you eat one? I admit it's unrealistic to say "if everyone were a vegetarian" and it's unrealistic to say "it would have been stopped or minimized" but you have to admit if everyone WERE vegetarians then it probably WOULD be very, significantly lower than it is now.

  • Reply David Atch September 10, 2009 at 6:16 am

    Smart Grid. We love Smart Grid. Smarrrrt Griiiid

  • Reply shoopdog September 10, 2009 at 7:00 pm

    No, that's not what I am saying at all. I am not equating the risk of contracting the HIV virus by touching an animal with that of eating one.

    What I am saying is that you are using one possible means of how the disease could have jumped to humans to justify your own beliefs.

    You are saying that vegetarianism would have lowered the spread. Since AIDS is spread mainly through human-human fluid transfer, I assume your theory incorporates cannibalism as a major method of transmission?

  • Reply Matt Y September 19, 2009 at 8:47 pm

    Ballsie pricks the lot of you

  • Reply Graham Dix September 22, 2009 at 7:18 am

    Talking about extinction? you do realise that over the course of the earths existance, BILLIONS of species have been born and died out. theres no stoping it. it would happen whether or not we were hunting them. cause OTHER THINGS hunt them.

  • Reply Theoo Dore September 22, 2009 at 10:15 am

    dont think u got the main problem in that. the problem is that humans are making the extinctions speed up rapidly, so if it continues we will have taken down millions of species that would take several thousand year to go extinct over natures course

  • Reply Applejuice September 24, 2009 at 5:22 am

    ZOMMMMBIEEEEEEEEEEEEEES

  • Reply Shoes742 October 2, 2009 at 12:27 pm

    lawl

  • Reply Shoes742 October 2, 2009 at 12:27 pm

    paranoid little hippy aint he?

  • Reply Omar Moreno October 6, 2009 at 11:49 pm

    iIthink this guy is making money spreading his lies.. poor guy don't know where the virus came from.. but he got paid.. and he is happy.. do this, be honest and tell the true..even if you do not make money.. ..

  • Reply kardentyrell October 15, 2009 at 1:43 pm

    you're misreading the chart then :p

  • Reply kardentyrell October 15, 2009 at 5:05 pm

    how it's written and how it's read are different things xD

  • Reply Nick La Riviere October 17, 2009 at 5:57 pm

    Isn't that chart just showing how far viruses have spread? So it's not saying they're the same virus – it's saying they've spread the same amount.

  • Reply shax108 October 21, 2009 at 3:17 am

    What a hideous legacy of colonialism. Especially Belgian colonialism which failed to establish proper methods for dealing with any problems of Congo.

  • Reply Michael Crumpton October 26, 2009 at 9:16 pm

    The number of diseases spread by hunting and eating animals is actually a good case for vegetarianism.

  • Reply Michael Crumpton October 26, 2009 at 9:17 pm

    He does not say they are similar he is talking about the origins of human infective versions of the disease.

  • Reply RandyBful1 December 19, 2009 at 1:16 am

    I heard no mention of where these viruses came from in the first place. What; they just 'appeared'? It is my understanding from years of research that these viruses were introduced by Bio Weapons researchers. What will it take for this society to "Wake Up"? Just look at the present uproar ( actually, there's not – but there certainly should be) over tainted vaccines. Do you think Baxter just had a little "mixup"? There will be another "virus" next year. What's it going to be? Cat, dog, ferret?

  • Reply kharnvelzyghur April 26, 2011 at 1:23 pm

    @deathart225 . Congratulations. Maybe they'll invite you to TED to do a talk on this subject. "vegetarianism is unhealthy for lack of protein". Fucking fantastically well informed aren't you?

  • Reply Steven Servin September 12, 2011 at 6:33 pm

    You are my Hero Nathan!!! I would like to work with the GVFI

  • Reply TheMercilessEye November 3, 2011 at 5:09 pm

    @sirbata Some more…BUSH MEAT, sir…?

  • Reply TheMercilessEye November 3, 2011 at 5:09 pm

    @kharnvelzyghur Somebody obviously hasn't had his PEANUT BUTTER yet, today…

  • Reply TheMercilessEye November 3, 2011 at 5:10 pm

    @SpaceMan131326 The CIA resents your inference. Please pass the salt, btw…

  • Reply TheWhiteUbik November 12, 2011 at 1:25 am

    @gurmad911 You must be a bad troll or incredibly stupid…

  • Reply Tom Carlucci February 3, 2012 at 10:53 pm

    HapaVir – a safe, natural virus replicating inhibitor. It's not a cure, but a help. It does not kill viruses, but interferes with a virus microbe's ability to connect with a host cell (which it needs to reproduce). Resulting in a lower viral army for the immune system to fight off.

  • Reply MsAuthenticite May 28, 2012 at 9:15 pm

    ain't buying their BS either!! they transmitted it to us while, as usual, testing their vaccins on us and still are!!! Genociders

  • Reply gurmad911 May 29, 2012 at 1:52 am

    In mid 60's there were illigetimate vaccinations vs polio in Congo (for the pupose of transmitting for depolution), that didn't reduce the population fast enough. So decay later (mid 70's) Robert Gallo and his team invented a new bio-weapon (Aids) for a population control, unfortunately, Africa is on the 1st list for extermination followed by Asia and Latin-America. S-Africa, E-Africa & W-Africa (the heavily black densed population areas) are chosen this time for affective population reduction.

  • Reply MsAuthenticite May 29, 2012 at 10:52 am

    How long are my people going to be slaughtered…it's not like they wouldn't be living off our land anyway! How do these people sleep at night??
    I'm happy to see that you are a conscious brethren…wherever you are know that sonner than they think Africa will rise and put up with that nonsense no more..the chinese will be our ally, our youth will be led by devoted afrocentric panafricanists….we are planning an unmercifull rebirth,we've suffered for so many centuries.God and the ancestors see!

  • Reply MsAuthenticite June 10, 2012 at 1:38 pm

    word brother! can enable me to send u a private msg pls.. hotep

  • Reply Infernape February 28, 2013 at 12:52 am

    Bad ending

  • Reply ArcticStorm_192 April 12, 2013 at 2:29 pm

    dont know what this suposed to teach me?
    then you have to listen better and pout me a thumbs up

  • Reply samala51 May 6, 2013 at 5:56 pm

    Sorry I can't say I buy in here.

  • Reply weesh February 9, 2014 at 9:01 am

    what is the reason for the high level of dislikes on this video?

  • Reply Sam Little April 21, 2015 at 6:17 pm

    Vegetarian!

  • Reply EgoSumSineNomine June 28, 2015 at 4:52 pm

    We need a good plague, the planet needs a break from us. The oceans fish life will be almost gone soon and all we needed to do to fix it is stop fishing it for three years and its back. The point of no return is in 6 months from today. I fracking hate our population problem on this planet I say let's roll the dice and see who makes it.

  • Reply MDM January 1, 2019 at 8:02 pm

    Many if Not all of you are so lost and are obviously clueless on any issue or situation relating to Science, Medicine and Virology! However you try as you will to be the authorities you are Not, in any ridiculous way you can. Nathan Wolfe is out there Working hard to find a way to do what None of You could Even Imagine Accomplishing! Grow up Get Real, Become informed, then get some form of Education!

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