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What is bacterial vaginosis? | Infectious diseases | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy

November 30, 2019


– [Voiceover] Bacterial
vaginosis is a disease that’s caused by the overgrowth of a type of bacteria that’s called Gardnerella vaginalis, Gardnerella vaginalis. And as the name might suggest, this is the most common vaginal infection. Now I wanna put these really big quotes around the term infection because the thing that’s interesting about Gardnerella vaginalis is that it’s a bacteria
that’s naturally found in the vagina. Now some may consider this to be a sexually transmitted infection, which is interesting
because it doesn’t cause any problems until there’s
too much of it there. So when we look to the causes of bacterial vaginosis, they are all things that change the vaginal environment. That can include acts like douching, so douching, or rinsing of the vagina. The other is having new
or multiple sex partners. And finally, another known cause is the use of antibiotics. This could be in the case of somebody that has a throat infection or a pneumonia that’s on antibiotics which will then attack
the bacteria that exists within the vagina and
allow Gardnerella vaginalis to overgrow and cause bacterial vaginosis. So we’ve touched a little bit on it here, but I wanna draw it out. So when we talk about the pathophysiology of a disease, we’re
talking about the mechanism by which that disease occurs. So in order to understand
the pathophysiology of bacterial vaginosis, we need to take a look at a sample of bacteria that exists in the vagina. So I’ll draw out some
Gardnerella vaginalis bacteria, and so I’ll put this up in our key. This is the symbol for
Gardnerella vaginalis. And I’ll draw a few of them around here, but I also wanna show that there are a lot of other bacteria
that exist in this sample. So if you really look at it here, the Gardnerella vaginalis
is the vast minority of bacteria that are
present in this sample of vaginal bacteria. So what happens over here, let’s say our patient is somebody that’s recently been treated for a throat infection, and so they’re taking an antibiotic. What happens is that
antibiotic kills off some of the bacteria that exists in the vagina as well as elsewhere in the body. As you can see now, the majority of bacteria that exists are the Gardnerella vaginalis bacteria. So they’ll reproduce and overgrow, and if they do so, you’re going to end up
having bacterial vaginosis. So the key here is that
you have an increase in the population of your
Gardnerella vaginalis bacteria, and that leads to your symptoms. So what symptoms can you have with bacterial vaginosis? One of the main features associated with bacterial vaginosis, or BV, are copious, or a lot,
of vaginal discharge. This discharge also characteristically has a fishy odor to it as well, and perhaps one of the most dangerous symptoms or effects that can occur is that pregnant women can deliver their babies early,
and this is referred to as preterm labor before the baby has enough time to properly
mature in the uterus. So it’s important then to talk about how we can diagnose bacterial vaginosis. This is mainly done by using what’s called a wet mount. So a wet mount. That’s where you take a swab or a sample from the vagina, so this swab has taken a
sample from the vagina, and you add this onto a microscopic slide, so right here, and when you take a look at this under a microscope, what you’ll see is this. Now you’ve got these two
simple squamous cells. So I’ll label that. These are vaginal epithelial cells, both of these guys. What I’m hoping you can see littered all over these cells are just these bacterial organisms. There’s just so many of them just kind of outlining them. They’re just littered with
them all over the place. So this is actually a clue. In fact, these are
referred to as clue cells. If you find these under a wet mount, that indicates that your
patient has bacterial vaginosis. Okay, so now that we’ve
made our diagnosis, the next step, of course,
would be treatment, and because Gardnerella
vaginalis is a bacterium, you would treat it with antibiotics to decrease the amount
of Gardnerella vaginalis that exists in the vagina
to return to the normal demographic, or population, of bacteria we should have there. So the next question you can ask would be how do you prevent BV from happening in the first place? And that’s a tougher question to answer because some of these
things that cause BV, like using antibiotics to treat pneumonia, well we have to use antibiotics to treat pneumonia. So the only thing that’s recommended to prevent when having new or multiple sex partners, use condoms. Beyond that, what doctors usually do when a patient becomes symptomatic is just to treat with antibiotics.

52 Comments

  • Reply Daniela Chamorro July 10, 2015 at 4:34 am

    Nice synthesis video.

  • Reply Cyan Diaz January 20, 2016 at 4:07 am

    they should've put a little emphasis on a man's secretions being slightly alaki and how easily the penis introduces bacteria into the vagina. . Sex is the # 1 cause of BV and anti-biotics come in 2nd for those who didn't drink enough water like they were told.

  • Reply Ashley Nave December 22, 2016 at 1:03 pm

    I was recently diagnosed with a mild bacterial vaginitis and acute cystitis. I have never had multiple sexual relationships or partners. I know it can also happen to virgins but not as often in women who are sexually active.

  • Reply arjun dude January 23, 2017 at 11:17 am

    Not certain about the points made but ,if anyone else is searching for natural treatment for vaginitis try Jadonite Best BV Buddy (just google it ) ? Ive heard some super things about it and my m8 got great success with it.

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  • Reply Arthur Chan June 15, 2017 at 1:18 pm

    Excellent Video! Excuse me for butting in, I would love your opinion. Have you tried – Millawdon Destroy Toxic Trick (should be on google have a look)? It is a good one of a kind product for getting rid of Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) without the headache. Ive heard some interesting things about it and my buddy after a lifetime of fighting got amazing results with it.

  • Reply Irene Porcalla August 31, 2017 at 2:51 am

    Does is cause more discharge and messy discharge?

  • Reply Michael Smith September 2, 2017 at 3:23 pm

    Appreciate Video! Excuse me for chiming in, I would appreciate your opinion. Have you heard about – Millawdon Destroy Toxic Trick (Have a quick look on google cant remember the place now)? It is an awesome one off guide for getting rid of Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) minus the normal expense. Ive heard some great things about it and my work buddy after many years got astronomical success with it.

  • Reply Ayub Shrestha September 3, 2017 at 2:06 am

    Nice Video clip! Excuse me for the intrusion, I am interested in your thoughts. Have you thought about – Millawdon Destroy Toxic Trick (search on google)? It is a smashing one off product for getting rid of Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) without the normal expense. Ive heard some pretty good things about it and my good mate called Gray after many years got great success with it.

  • Reply Asongezwa Lindani September 5, 2017 at 11:28 am

    Kudos for the video content! Excuse me for chiming in, I would love your thoughts. Have you ever tried – Millawdon Destroy Toxic Trick (Sure I saw it on Google)? It is a good one off product for getting rid of Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) minus the normal expense. Ive heard some extraordinary things about it and my work colleague at very last got cool results with it.

  • Reply Pratik Maharjan September 6, 2017 at 5:21 am

    Kudos for the video content! Excuse me for butting in, I am interested in your initial thoughts. Have you heard the talk about – Millawdon Destroy Toxic Trick (do a search on google)? It is an awesome one of a kind guide for getting rid of Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) minus the headache. Ive heard some pretty good things about it and my good mate called Gray at very last got cool success with it.

  • Reply hanul maarif September 6, 2017 at 1:42 pm

    Appreciate Video clip! Forgive me for the intrusion, I would appreciate your opinion. Have you considered – Millawdon Destroy Toxic Trick (Sure I saw it on Google)? It is an awesome one off guide for getting rid of Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) minus the headache. Ive heard some incredible things about it and my old buddy Taylor at last got great results with it.

  • Reply John Smith September 11, 2017 at 7:36 pm

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  • Reply Sheree Hardin September 14, 2017 at 2:57 am

    Dear Khan and other real medical facilities/study areas,

    Is there a link between BV and SIPO? Maybe you all should research. BTW I feel for you cuz you have nothing but spam here-.-

  • Reply ELVIS APARICIO January 21, 2018 at 2:34 pm

    Nice Video! Sorry for chiming in, I would love your thoughts. Have you tried – Millawdon Destroy Toxic Trick (do a google search)? It is a great one off guide for getting rid of Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) minus the headache. Ive heard some super things about it and my old buddy Taylor at very last got amazing results with it.

  • Reply Cherry Cervantes January 23, 2018 at 4:57 am

    Cheers for the Video! Apologies for chiming in, I would love your initial thoughts. Have you ever tried – Millawdon Destroy Toxic Trick (Sure I saw it on Google)? It is a smashing one off product for getting rid of Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) without the normal expense. Ive heard some interesting things about it and my cousin at very last got amazing results with it.

  • Reply HR Saqel January 27, 2018 at 3:40 pm

    What is the best way to fix my bacterial vaginosis issue naturally ? I read loads of good reviews on the internet about how Womezon Remedy can help you cure your bacterial vaginosis issue inherently . Has any one tested out this bacterial vaginosis treatment?

  • Reply KNC TECH January 27, 2018 at 4:30 pm

    I notice a lot of people keep on talking about Womezon Remedy. But I'm not sure if it's good. Have you ever tried this bacterial vaginosis treatment?

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    How effective is Womezon Remedy? I've noticed numerous awesome things about this bacterial vaginosis secret remedy.

  • Reply José Crisalide May 6, 2018 at 8:13 pm

    Lovely Video! Excuse me for chiming in, I would love your thoughts. Have you thought about – Millawdon Destroy Toxic Trick (probably on Google)? It is a smashing exclusive guide for getting rid of Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) without the headache. Ive heard some great things about it and my m8 got cool results with it.

  • Reply jinhi9005 May 9, 2018 at 9:57 am

    Lovely Video! Sorry for the intrusion, I am interested in your initial thoughts. Have you heard the talk about – Millawdon Destroy Toxic Trick (search on google)? It is an awesome exclusive guide for getting rid of Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) minus the hard work. Ive heard some awesome things about it and my buddy at last got amazing success with it.

  • Reply Bhaskar Khadka May 11, 2018 at 11:17 am

    Appreciate Video clip! Excuse me for chiming in, I am interested in your initial thoughts. Have you tried – Millawdon Destroy Toxic Trick (do a search on google)? It is an awesome one off product for getting rid of Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) minus the normal expense. Ive heard some pretty good things about it and my m8 after a lifetime of fighting got great results with it.

  • Reply Willian Smithonson May 18, 2018 at 7:41 pm

    hi everyone ,if anyone else wants to uncover vaginitis infections try Bacto Remedy Blueprint (just google it ) ? Ive heard some extraordinary things about it and my got cool results with it.

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  • Reply MH CHOWDHURY May 28, 2018 at 3:53 pm

    Its still shock me just how lots of people have no clue about Womezon Remedy although a lot of people cure their bacterial vaginosis issue naturally using it. Thanks to my personal mate who told me about it. I've fix my bacterial vaginosis issue naturally

  • Reply Pak Happy July 6, 2018 at 1:18 am

    Great. Thank you sir

  • Reply Aaron Griffin December 21, 2018 at 5:37 am

    This is how I knew the girl I was with was cheating she accused me of sleeping around. When she was diagnosed with BV. And stated I gave it too her. We argued back n forth for weeks. So I visited my doctor and got tested for everything and resulted came back NEGATIVE ??. He also stated it was impossible for me to give her BV. I took my results to her and this crazy bitch said he was a dam lair. I was beyond shocked ?. So immediately ended the relationship. It was the 3rd time this happened in the time we dated. She had to be having multiple sexual partners. But blamed me the whole time. ? It was then confirmed after it ended she didn’t waste time getting into another relationship after ours. Glad I got out when I did….

  • Reply Muhammad Taimur Khan January 23, 2019 at 3:18 pm

    If antibiotics kills all the other bacteria why doesn't it kill the Garnerella vaginalis Antibiotics doesn't leave anything? explain it to me

  • Reply REBEL STAR March 30, 2019 at 2:47 am

    Does Womezon Remedy (just google it) help me treat my bacterial vaginosis issue naturally ? I see a lot of people keep on talking about this bacterial vaginosis treatment.

  • Reply seetha raman March 30, 2019 at 5:07 am

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  • Reply kareena sharma April 5, 2019 at 9:10 am

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  • Reply James Harrison April 5, 2019 at 11:08 am

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  • Reply miss maria April 24, 2019 at 9:39 am

    This is an informative and good video. This video help to know about this. I think everybody should watch this video…

  • Reply naam joo May 4, 2019 at 11:04 am

    What is Womezon Remedy? I've noticed several awesome things about this bacterial vaginosis remedy.

  • Reply sadhan sarker June 2, 2019 at 12:25 pm

    What is the best product or brand to cleanse your bacterial vaginosis issue inherently ? I read plenty of great reviews on the internet about how Womezon Remedy can help you cleanse your bacterial vaginosis issue inherently . Has anyone tested out this bacterial vaginosis secret remedy?

  • Reply A. G. July 11, 2019 at 9:18 pm

    It's not sexually transmitted…virgins can get it!!!

  • Reply na c July 17, 2019 at 11:55 am

    If her treatment doesn’t work for you I have a treatment for BV and add or message me on FB to get the free 7 day treatment. The has worked in 2 patients and I am looking at studying recurrence of infection and how it works for all types of women. It’s 100% safe. I just need your honest response on your results.

  • Reply Tawakkaltu Ilallah July 19, 2019 at 12:01 pm

    What exactly is Womezon Remedy? How does this thing really work? I see lots of people keep on talking about this bacterial vaginosis remedy.

  • Reply madura vithana July 19, 2019 at 2:21 pm

    What is Womezon Remedy? Does it work? I hear many people fix their bacterial vaginosis issue naturally with this bacterial vaginosis secret remedy.

  • Reply Rutland MGTOW man Uk August 4, 2019 at 2:13 am

    Nothing worse getting it on your knob and passing to you girlfriend after shagging your other girlfriend but it’s to easy to pass off to you girlfriend that it’s her fault

  • Reply Rutland MGTOW man Uk August 4, 2019 at 2:15 am

    Bv use natural yogurt inside

  • Reply Hayley Williams September 20, 2019 at 11:25 pm

    I am not sexually active but my discharge smells unnatural..what is this?

  • Reply Karin Smith September 23, 2019 at 6:19 am

    Best BV Treatment: MootFix.xyz

  • Reply Katy Smith September 23, 2019 at 6:20 am

    Its still shock me just how lots of people have no clue about MootFix.xyz although a lot of people cure their bacterial vaginosis issue naturally using it. Thanks to my personal mate who told me about it. I've fix my bacterial vaginosis issue naturally

  • Reply Nayyy E October 22, 2019 at 8:03 pm

    I just want to help a girl out! Buy rephresh pro-b! It really does work! Suffered bv for 2 years used antibiotics and got bv right after getting off antibiotics.

  • Reply Rey Klein November 7, 2019 at 3:17 pm

    Does Womezon Remedy (do a google search) help me treat my bacterial vaginosis issue naturally ? I see many people keep on speaking about this bacterial vaginosis treatment.

  • Reply Julene Rivers November 7, 2019 at 8:02 pm

    Does Womezon Remedy really help to treat your bacterial vaginosis issue inherently ? We have read many good stuff about this bacterial vaginosis remedy.

  • Reply Ryker Noble November 7, 2019 at 8:23 pm

    I hear lots of people keep on speaking about Womezon Remedy. But I'm not sure if it is good. Have you ever tried using this bacterial vaginosis treatment?

  • Reply horst32111 November 8, 2019 at 4:55 am

    Has anyone tried Womezon Remedy? (google it) We have noticed numerous awesome things about this bacterial vaginosis remedy.

  • Reply Theresa Gipson November 9, 2019 at 9:59 pm

    Doesn’t it itch as well??

  • Reply JoyintheMorn November 28, 2019 at 3:52 am

    Antibiotics are the treatment which in turn is also a cause…natural herbs, cures, and natural "antibiotics" (which are more gentler on the system) for me

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