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We Were Super Wrong About Mental Illness: The DSM’s Origin Story

January 8, 2020


[INTRO ♪] It’s hard to talk about psychology for very
long without mentioning the DSM— Also known as the Diagnostic and Statistical
Manual of Mental Disorders. It’s sometimes called the ‘Psychiatry
Bible,’ and for good reason: it’s how most mental health professionals figure out if you have something they should be treating. But mental health professionals are just people. Regular, fallible people who have made mistakes— especially in the early days of the field,
when psychology was often based more on what sounded good than
on empirical evidence. And the origin story of the DSM reveals one
of the biggest ones. For a while, psychologists had a pretty limited
definition of mental illness— they thought mental disorders were mostly physiological problems you were born with. And it took a couple of world wars for them
to realize just how wrong they were. One of the first times anyone tried to identify
people with mental illness, at least in the US, was in 1840. The census that year had a question about
whether people had what it called “insane” or “idiotic” dependents. Yeah, language has … changed a bit since then. The problem was, the question didn’t include
any definitions of mental illness. So census takers kind of had to wing it. And without specific sets of symptoms to use when they were diagnosing people, doctors also had to wing it! It took until 1918 for the American Medico-Psychological Association to write “The Statistical Manual for the Use
of Institutions for the Insane,” which had some of the first standardized descriptions
of what counted as a disorder. It included things like “manic-depressive
psychosis” or “dementia praecox”— which today we would call bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, respectively. Since these disorders were really poorly understood
at the time, and there weren’t great treatments for them, they were common among people who’d been
institutionalized. But the manual’s whole approach to mental
illness was really narrow. Doctors thought these disorders came entirely
from physical problems, the same way a hard knock to the head can
cause the symptoms of a concussion. Today, we know bipolar disorder and schizophrenia
are some of the most highly heritable mental disorders, so it makes sense that they’d think of disorders
as being physical—maybe even hereditary. And it’s true that mental illness can come
with changes in brain chemistry. But it is not at all like a concussion! Environmental factors are incredibly important
when it comes to mental health, and not considering those factors meant that
doctors missed a lot. Still, the system worked okay for a while
… until there was a problem. A pretty big problem, in fact—kind of a
worldwide problem: World War II. Suddenly, there were millions of soldiers
returning from a war where they’d seen their friends die and witnessed some of the cruelest possible treatment of others. Meanwhile, families were split, communities
were torn apart, and there was a lot of anxiety about the future
of civilization in general. Many of these problems had come up in the
aftermath of World War I, too, but they were generally diagnosed as shell
shock. Today, we call shell shock post-traumatic
stress disorder, or PTSD, but back then, doctors didn’t really think
of it as a mental illness. They thought it was caused by the physical effects of artillery shells on nerves—hence the name. So doctors treated it like a neurological
problem, not a psychological one. It wasn’t until World War II that psychologists
began to realize what had once been known as shell shock might
be a mental illness. They started calling it combat stress reaction, and treating it as a psychological thing. The thing was, all these people had previously
been pretty healthy, so the manuals weren’t much help. All disorders were considered biological and lifelong; there were no categories describing problems that developed in response to some life event. So the American Psychological Association,
or APA, decided to write a new guide. But first they went looking for some help
understanding what was happening to people. What they found was detailed in the inauspiciously titled “War Department Technical Bulletin, Medical 203,” a document published in 1943 that tried to explain how disorders could emerge from stressful
life events. It was written by a committee chaired by a
military psychiatrist, but it relied a whole lot on the theories
of Sigmund Freud. And I don’t know if you’ve heard of the guy, but there are some things he kinda didn’t
get right about how people work. Like … almost everything. But he saw patients after World War I, and he had an explanation for why they experienced
shell shock— and why not everyone did. The symptoms of shell shock were very similar
to symptoms of what Freud called a neurosis, which he
thought was caused by childhood trauma and the repressed emotions
or complexes that came from it. The idea was that if something that was too
stressful to think about, it would be pushed into your unconscious mind, and then show itself through other anxieties
or troubling behaviors. It was also hard to tell if trauma was the
real reason for the symptoms of neurosis, since by definition the memories might be
repressed. But in the case of shell shock, it was obvious
what the trauma was. So this War Department memo used Freud’s ideas to explain how life circumstance could lead
to a combat stress reaction in someone who didn’t have a history of
mental illness. There were so many patients who
fit the description that when the APA started to write the first edition
of the DSM, which was published in 1952, these ideas became
a major theme. They copied several passages verbatim from
the War Department memo, including some about how disorders could be
reactions to social factors or the environment. Also like the memo, the first edition of the
DSM divided disorders into neurotic, psychotic, and character disorders— in addition to disorders that had a known
physiological cause. The DSM has been through a lot since. Removing some of Freud’s theories for how
disorders developed was one of the first orders of business, and today’s
DSM 5 focuses much more on just describing and categorizing symptoms. But we’ve kept some of the key lessons from
the DSM’s origin story: that disorders can have environmental and
social causes— not just biological ones—and that mental
illnesses can be much broader than what you’d find in an
early 20th century mental hospital. Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow Psych! For more on the strange—and sometimes awful—
history of psychology, along with all kinds of other videos about
our weird human brains, you can go to youtube.com/scishowpsych to subscribe. [OUTRO ♪]

100 Comments

  • Reply SciShow Psych May 30, 2018 at 5:02 pm

    Correction: The American Medico-Psychological Association became the American Psychiatric Association, not the American Psychological Association, and it was the American Psychiatric Association that put together the DSM. Thanks to those who pointed that out!

  • Reply None of your Business May 30, 2018 at 6:06 pm

    Well, since we now know that psychological disorders like PTSD can be caused by individual experience (rather than just being heriditary), Freud got that one right. Well, half-right. To be fair, he didn't know yet, but he was on the right trail. And for someone not using the scientific method, that's quite something.

  • Reply hoguesteele May 30, 2018 at 6:09 pm

    There's good evidence that the physical effect of exploding artillery near a human body does cause lasting physiological damage. Changes to hormone production/regulation is all I can remember right now, but new hormone replacement therapies have been very successful at treating soldiers PTSD by reversing some of the problems caused by "shell shock". Doctors were onto something back then.

  • Reply Iago Silva May 30, 2018 at 7:07 pm

    Having understood the angle here, I'll just say: psychology is still mere applied neurology, we just haven't gotten there yet 😉

  • Reply Now Here Man May 30, 2018 at 7:53 pm

    This is scary because as a society we give so much credence to these people, and in my experience with psychiatrist and psychologists they really seem oblivious to this perception.

  • Reply Dot Nerd May 30, 2018 at 8:11 pm

    "Reactions to social factors or the environment" yes, somewhat… however the social and environmental factors can influence them… mind you, there's not always that explanation to mental illness, but it's interesting to point that out. The severity of it seems to depend on outside factors.

  • Reply Empathy Lessons May 30, 2018 at 8:37 pm

    Deviant, Dysfunctional & Distressing works for my usage.

  • Reply Kayla Davis May 30, 2018 at 8:52 pm

    In my PSY101 class last semester, I learned about the history of American psychologists using hypnosis to treat traumas, but also about how it 95% backfired into psychologists accidentally implanting memories of traumas. I also learned a little bit about how insurance companies backed WAY THE HECK away from anything that had to do with trauma treatment because of this problem. Is this part of why health insurance doesn't really cover mental healthcare today? How do we correct it?

  • Reply Paul Chretien May 30, 2018 at 9:28 pm

    How old is this video? Hank looks like he lost 15 years…

  • Reply Philip Himmelstein May 30, 2018 at 11:25 pm

    It's important to note that any clinical psychologist or psychiatrist worth her salt still thinks the DSM is garbage and that diseases actually exist as contiua, not categorical entities, and a huge part of the field is trying to shift away from categorical criteria (see: RDoC).

  • Reply The Average cat May 31, 2018 at 1:59 am

    I love videos like this
    more history of science plz 💙

  • Reply Youcant Stopme! May 31, 2018 at 6:00 am

    I have Aspergers syndrome and that was removed from the autistic spectrum, where does this leave me???

  • Reply Youcant Stopme! May 31, 2018 at 6:04 am

    Pre manifested destiny, could be a mental illness other's give people.

    Like our whole life we are "feed" who and what we are to become and what we are not able to achieve.

  • Reply Kathy Fausett May 31, 2018 at 8:50 am

    Doctors have been as wrong about physical illness as they were about mental illness.

  • Reply cajagato May 31, 2018 at 11:32 am

    Could you do a SciShow Pysch on the history of considerations of combat disorders? They've been noticed since there have been wars, right? Haven't there been different names for the same thing? Shell Shock, Battle Fatigue?

  • Reply Brebeeb May 31, 2018 at 1:01 pm

    is that an Olan Rogers pin?!?! <3

  • Reply 1MC May 31, 2018 at 1:39 pm

    It was Called Shell Shock, Battle Fatigue, Operational Exhaustion, Then lastly PTSD. The softening of the language has robbed all Feeling from the Actual Condition.

  • Reply Michele J May 31, 2018 at 1:47 pm

    Outstanding. Thanks.

  • Reply yukishiro rai May 31, 2018 at 2:15 pm

    Mmmm now that DSM history been talked about now curious about the ICD one?

  • Reply Toby Port May 31, 2018 at 2:21 pm

    aawwww i thought we were talking about distinguished service medal…

  • Reply yuh yuh May 31, 2018 at 2:23 pm

    Oh Freud, you coked out perv you.

  • Reply Loz Turner May 31, 2018 at 3:16 pm

    They also don't tell you about reclassification for Political motivations. So the common one although hard to prove and I will post as an opinion, interestingly when the prevailing increase of autism diagnosis in recent years change from one of 102 1 of 68, ASD amalgamated high functioning Aspergers with autism, it makes more sense the reason when you consider a government or government systems that didn't want an onslaught of new diagnoses especially in in terms of medical need and visual presentation of vague to say the least and pale in severity from observation unlike other conditions listed in the DSM.

  • Reply BLACK STONE May 31, 2018 at 5:25 pm

    In 30 yrs, our understanding of psychology will seem primitive. I believe that genetic testing will be useful in understanding a person. Genetic play a huge role in how a person perceives, feels and interacts in life.

  • Reply Nerys Ghemor May 31, 2018 at 5:37 pm

    Interestingly enough the more we learn about traumatic brain injury, and the fact that simply being hit by the compression wave of a blast can had the brain, we are now finding that in ADDITION to PTSD, there can ALSO be neurological problems that are indeed physical in nature and caused by artillery, IEDs, etc. So in that case both were right!

  • Reply Jebediah Clang May 31, 2018 at 9:13 pm

    "Shellshock" should be an official condition again.

  • Reply Thiago Bhering June 1, 2018 at 3:01 am

    43 psychoanalytical people Disliked this video

  • Reply Cryptosporidium 137 June 1, 2018 at 3:13 am

    Sigmund Freud was the Darwin of Psychology.

  • Reply bullsquid42 June 1, 2018 at 5:56 am

    Always makes me wonder what they'll say about our psychology ideas in a hundret years

  • Reply Stacy Spoonley June 1, 2018 at 6:16 am

    #i2

  • Reply Abdo Bedo June 1, 2018 at 12:29 pm

    Hank, you're always welcome !

  • Reply Ash O June 1, 2018 at 3:41 pm

    I don't understand why the whole world is bent on undermining the contributions of Freud. We'd still be thinking that mental illness was the result of inferior genes if it weren't for him.

  • Reply Rumple Stiltskin June 1, 2018 at 6:31 pm

    One of the men who helped compile the latest edition of that book spoke out saying that Psychiatry is a phony science, because it is not science at all, but a study in Statistical Analysis of things that appeared to be similar. Psychiatrist and psychologist still use "Their Best Judgement" in diagnosing a patient, which may or may not be accurate, because all humans harbor biases relative to their beliefs about anything and everything.. in other words, "You can take the boy out of the country, but cannot take the country out of the boy" !

  • Reply ItsMeHammie June 2, 2018 at 5:06 am

    Psychiatry is a fraudulent field. The problem is people want reasons as to why they can not do something and want to be labeled so they don't have to take responsibility for their actions.

  • Reply cosmosofinfinity June 2, 2018 at 9:27 am

    Missed opportunity to call the channel Psych Show

  • Reply Bradley Noneofyourbizz June 2, 2018 at 1:14 pm

    Does 1600 Pennsylvania Ave have any insane or idiotic occupants?

  • Reply John Carpenter June 2, 2018 at 1:51 pm

    When Hank said "…they went looking for some help understanding what was happening to people." I knew things were going to get better. Maybe uncertainty is good and certainty is evil. Or is it just that I knew they were misguided in the first place so I knew uncertainty was the right direction?

  • Reply Daydreamer Jane June 2, 2018 at 5:22 pm

    ITT: People bashing the DSM when they've only taken Psychology 101

  • Reply TINY NINJA HOBO June 4, 2018 at 4:45 am

    the mental health system is still very flawed.

  • Reply Marko Sunka June 4, 2018 at 5:42 am

    I love how literally everyone is a expert in psychology in the comments 🙂
    As they say, no matter how much you try, everyone else will always be an expert psychologist, politician and a pharmacologist.

  • Reply Durtly June 5, 2018 at 2:31 am

    Sci show seems to be getting very chummy with the global authoritarian narrative.

  • Reply Rage Coder June 5, 2018 at 7:36 am

    DSM? Is it the Das Sound Machine?

  • Reply Michael June 5, 2018 at 8:50 pm

    But they do have (neuro)physiological disorders, partly caused by environmental (get it?) influences.

  • Reply kriskelvin64 June 8, 2018 at 9:52 pm

    There are people involved in mental health that see the DSM not as an achievement but as a problem. This clip is really bad. You jumped right into more political then scientific issues. I m used to better aproaches to issues from you guys.

  • Reply Ted Cameron June 12, 2018 at 10:42 am

    Interesting as always, but I wondered where you had escaped to Hank, missed you in Space and others :~)

  • Reply Sorel Munoz June 18, 2018 at 10:51 pm

    You might want to point out that the DSM was originally created to try and understand mental illness. But after a couple years some of the original writers of the DSM noticed that it had started to be financially influenced and controlled by the pharmaceutical companies in order to gradually insert certain disorders at profitable times in the DSM in order to eventually categorize most if not all humans under a certain mental disorder thereby resulting in a medicated society.

  • Reply Rien Jen June 19, 2018 at 5:59 pm

    Yeah…they still don't have it right. Mental illness, like everything else in the body, develops due to a variety of factors, including environmental stressors, genes and chemical imbalances…but also nutritional deficiencies (lack of thiamine can cause brain damage and psychosis), head trauma (common side effect of a concussion, depression), adverse drug reactions (fluoroquinolone antibiotics can cause permanent mental illness), and any brain disorder you can name. The first sign of Parkinson's is anxiety; the first sign of Huntington's is aggression. Before we can treat anyone with mental illness, we need to know why it's happening and doctors get it wrong A LOT.

  • Reply Just-A -Guy-TV June 20, 2018 at 4:06 am

    Everyone has everything in that damned book.

  • Reply Leif A June 28, 2018 at 1:34 pm

    yes! thank you scishow! Sigmund Freud got most of his theories wrong. God damn, i've been in a lot of discussons with students about his standard about ego consciousness.

  • Reply Ferintosh Farms Photography July 10, 2018 at 3:09 am

    I'm an insane idiot

  • Reply Jesus Mark July 28, 2018 at 3:23 pm

    It's all BS. No one in America cares about the mentally ill. Just garbage to be burned

  • Reply Ben Whittington August 5, 2018 at 2:28 pm

    Is the camera angle usually that low? I'm a tall guy. Makes me feel like Hank is over 7ft at eye level with his chest.

  • Reply Elsie November 1, 2018 at 8:19 pm

    Compared to other medical disciplines we are so horrifically far behind in understanding about, recovering, and caring for people with psychological illnesses.

  • Reply IntermediateJesus December 8, 2018 at 10:19 pm

    Some of the DSM is more like a taxonomy of extreme human character types of which we are all on a spectrum on and theories of their possible genesis.

  • Reply littlebrowndog February 4, 2019 at 10:13 pm

    psychology is not a science

  • Reply The Jackanapes February 5, 2019 at 10:28 pm

    So many of us lay-people want to hang on to broken or incomplete hypotheses in this field (and others, but in particular psychology).
    They forget that in scientific endeavors one cannot ignore evidence counter to an established hypothesis or theory. Example: Newtonian/classical physics vs. quantum field theory. It's not that classical is completely wrong, it's just incomplete.

    In the same way, something like traditional concepts of gender and sexual orientation are almost certainly incomplete.
    This is easily abused…

  • Reply Gordon Lawrence February 5, 2019 at 11:51 pm

    Then along comes DSM-5 which is so bad it's useless according to most of the world. EG MDD has a kappa value of 0.29 in DSM-5. That is a measure of how reliably a condition can be diagnosed using the criteria laid down. MDD is one of the best understood mental health conditions there is. ICD-10 has a kappa value for MDD of around 0.82. Then we have the farce that is saying that Asperger's and Autism are the same condition even though there are some symptoms which are polar opposites with zero overlap. EG if you have Asperger's you will be talking early. In some cases this is talking in simple sentences within a year. With Autism speech starts at 3+ years (for single words) and with neither of the conditions does speech start from age 1 to 3 unless there is another condition present. This is also proof that it is NOT a spectrum condition. Thankfully everywhere but the USA uses ICD-10 and the regular updates from the WHO. DMS-5 is so bad the NHS has made an official comment on it.
    https://www.nhs.uk/news/mental-health/news-analysis-controversial-mental-health-guide-dsm-5/
    As usual in the USA this is all down to money. IE pharma companies influencing the guide in order to sell more drugs.

  • Reply Nat Tupper February 6, 2019 at 12:45 pm

    Freud was definitely wrong about, yeah, most things. But I think that he was right about the trauma bit. Trauma really does have lasting (but treatable) effects. I experienced that as well and have a lot of problems because of it. And from what I've learned in life, you can't just stuff EVERYTHING people who are mostly wrong said about stuff under the rug if there's still something to be learned. Take ideas from everyone and think about the ideas presented. Use your sense of logic and reasoning to determine if something is likely right or wrong and come to your own conclusions.

  • Reply Stephen Beres February 7, 2019 at 4:29 am

    The main problem with DSM5 is that too many things are categorized as "Spectrum Disorders". In stead of determining whether you are "ill" or "well", places far too many people in varying degrees of ill.

  • Reply bing kurger February 7, 2019 at 9:09 pm

    Oh thank god that people are finally figuring out Freud was bonkers. Warms my heart cockles to see it here.

  • Reply Anna Nicholson February 8, 2019 at 1:25 am

    Freud was a coke head. He also wasn't allowed to help his high class patients who experienced sexual abuse. Society said that sexual abuse didnt happen to the rich.

  • Reply doug pug February 8, 2019 at 2:48 am

    The APA still gets a lot of things wrong

  • Reply Maverick Hargrave February 10, 2019 at 5:17 pm

    I'm always surprised how a pseudoscience like Psychology (and Psychiatry) gets so much respect from society. Maybe it's because, when dealing with disturbed people, what existed before the DSM was so brutal, (lobotomy, asylums, shock treatment), that nowadays it's seen as okay to distribute labels and diagnoses and to medicate kids and teens with things Clonazepam, Risperidon and Ritalin, for years if necessary. But one day the DSM, the over-diagnose and psychiatric drugs will be seen as something very primitive, just like early editions of the DSM and older treatments are primitive to us.

  • Reply Saltlake Seattelite February 11, 2019 at 4:45 pm

    The DSM is really helpful, but when the book contains only faults it can only see people as faulted or disordered. There is no "baseline" or "normal" in the manual so I guess the question would be how do you know if anyone is ever "cured"?

  • Reply Rick Malchow February 11, 2019 at 10:06 pm

    "The study of psychology is at the same place surgery was when it was being performed in barber shops." – probably Churchill or somebody.

  • Reply Ken Bell February 12, 2019 at 11:17 am

    "Idiotic Dependence" on DSM

  • Reply Mario Caez February 13, 2019 at 7:33 pm

    4:15 did anybody else notice Sigmund Freud doing the eyebrow thing?

  • Reply Richard Harris February 13, 2019 at 8:09 pm

    Freud was wrong about some stuff, not almost everything though, thats a bit strong

  • Reply Philip Turner February 14, 2019 at 7:58 am

    The modern equivalent of witch doctors are psychologists. I would sooner trust the predictions based on the study of disembowelled small animals than one of these idiots.

  • Reply Stale Bagelz February 14, 2019 at 8:37 pm

    any new discoveries in the field of psychology is pushed back HARD by conservative reactionaries. making progress extremely difficult, at least in society understanding it

  • Reply fisqual February 15, 2019 at 5:00 am

    Diamond Star Motors?

  • Reply Brittany February 16, 2019 at 4:24 pm

    And yet there are still symptoms not recognized as a mental health disorder that have no legal diagnosis or protection. Like the fact that sensory processing disorder when not linked to autism spectrum disorder is not a recognized diagnosis.

  • Reply Dávid Kertész February 17, 2019 at 8:16 am

    "The death of your friends stresses you because your father didn't love you."

  • Reply TG373 -M85 February 18, 2019 at 12:02 am

    Really? I don't know if he was that wrong. It's more people are uncomfortable with the implications.

  • Reply Jace Cavacini February 19, 2019 at 6:17 am

    The DSM is not science, fact, or evidence-based. It is all based on committee opinions and industry politics.

  • Reply VictorKibalchich February 19, 2019 at 11:56 am

    You've completely missed out how the DSM was developed as response to medical insurance companies wanting to know how to charge people. There's a reason that the DSM is only valid in the US, while everyone else uses the ICD.

  • Reply Randy WA February 20, 2019 at 12:44 am

    This isn’t really related to the video but I thought if this: I think we should look at mental illness with a more therapeutic instead of scientific approach. Like maybe not giving pills but talking with people about their issues and helping them get through them. The brain is really complex and frankly, we don’t know how exactly to fix it with pills. It can temporarily make the pain go away, but that’s how addictions firm anyway. I say therapy is best.

  • Reply Cauê Waneck February 20, 2019 at 11:53 pm

    "There are some things Freud kinda didn't get right about how people work. Like… Almost everything" . Sorry, this is purely ideological. Better refrain from talking about psychoanalysis if your vision of it is freud using a "Wrong about stuff" shirt. Or maybe study a bit more?

  • Reply JustDoIt February 21, 2019 at 2:06 am

    Freud said nothing wrong.

  • Reply Scientific Humanist February 24, 2019 at 12:54 am

    You mean scaring people shitless over long periods tends to damage their psyche? How strange? 🤯🤔

  • Reply The Patient February 26, 2019 at 4:22 am

    Took me awhile before I figured out SciShow wasn't retracting something they said about mental illness. Rather, "We were super wrong about mental illness" is referring to humanity in general.

  • Reply Brian Kerrigan March 4, 2019 at 12:44 am

    My sister and I have a theory that some insane people are too intelligent, or lack so much intelligence that the brain doesn't respond well. And thus the reason they are not sane. Thoughts?

  • Reply Pablo Bragato March 16, 2019 at 2:07 am

    I would REALLY like to know why physchoanalisis is so wrong but still so popular through the century! Can anyone help me?!

  • Reply Fran Sinclair March 24, 2019 at 10:50 pm

    the more i read it the more I think it is a crock. You can read it and think oh wow i have that and that. My old psychologist said when she did her studies she thought oh i think i have all these disorders too as everyone in the world has most of the symptoms.

  • Reply B Blessed April 30, 2019 at 6:26 am

    Dsm in regards to addiction are old models and agenda based some even not scientific lack of validity

  • Reply B Blessed April 30, 2019 at 6:26 am

    Dsm in regards to addiction are old models and agenda based some even not scientific lack of validity not getting solution just treatment like a bandage "oh you feel this this and this take these pills and a label and go sit in the corner" with out any tests and this is specially prevalent to low income and state medical and people coming back from recent wars feeling of broken and government doing so little but has been slowly changing .

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    What the

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  • Reply Rivera Films June 8, 2019 at 4:15 pm

    As a psychologist in training, I have to say: I love that there is a psych show to educate people on misunderstood topics. You guys do your research well. But I would like to add that after watching a couple of videos from this channel, I see a tendency that the hosts constantly state how psychology was SO wrong in the past. And I get it, they are historical facts. But after hearing it so many times, it sort of gives the viewer the impression that they might be trying to minimize this field of study because of it's past mistakes. I just wanted to point that out for your future works. Other than that, I do enjoy your content.

  • Reply Ben Smith June 16, 2019 at 5:38 am

    We still have a LOT to learn. With only a few hundred years of study, defining, diagnosing, and treating mental illness still really new. We've grazed the surface.

  • Reply Aldo June 21, 2019 at 5:20 pm

    CIE vs DSM, the ultimate battle!

  • Reply genralpompeyo generalpompeyo June 29, 2019 at 8:54 am

    SciShow always dismises Freud 🙁

  • Reply James Worth July 29, 2019 at 3:20 pm

    Sometimes its just a cigar…

  • Reply Skye blue16 October 21, 2019 at 3:42 pm

    Says shell shocked..thinks Ninja Turtles

  • Reply Elaine And John December 5, 2019 at 12:18 pm

    See George Carlin’s bit on soft language or euphemisms on the development from shell shock to ptsd.

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