Articles, Blog

The voyages of Zika virus

February 5, 2020

Between 1519 and 1522 Ferdinand Magellan’s ship the Victoria made the first circumnavigation of the world. Of the 237 men on the voyage only 18 survived. Magellan wasn’t one of them
because he died in the Philippines, but under another captain, the Victoria was able to cross the Indian Ocean, round the Cape of Good Hope,
and return to Spain. 2016 marks another circumnavigation, this time the circumnavigation of Zika virus. Zika virus originated in Africa, and has travelled round the world and finally back to Africa again. first basically to the 1947 in the Zika forest which is just north of Lake Victoria in Uganda macaque monkeys have been placed in cages in the seeker forest as part of a year or fever monitoring operations going on they didn’t find any yellow fever in macaque monkeys but the phone something new which was Zika virus it took about another decade before the first case time dr. Germans which was in waste Africa and in the ensuing years that were a handful of cases appeared in other parts of tropical Africa studies to find antibodies against Zika virus also showed that the virus has been in several other African countries and Kenya cameroon and Zambia and even further north in Egypt least study sure that Zika virus was a flavivirus a relative of dengue fever yellow fever but they were barely a dozen cases described in the medical literature for the 50 years after its discovery and none of those were very serious at all so Zika virus remained a very obscure tropical disease during that team the next step was ekis circumnavigation of the world was to cross the indian ocean and we know that by 1966 that had arrived at malaysia subsequently clinical cases turned up in other parts of Southeast Asia and Cambodia and Thailand and the Philippines and antibody studies also showed that Zika virus had probably visited java indonesia and Bangladesh’s well tzikas fellow flavivirus yellow fever moved with a slave trade from Africa to South America but Zika virus was unknown and surf America before very recently so it didn’t move with the slave trade and that indicates that Zika virus is probably very r in west africa at the time of the 19th century when many sleeps were being transported across the Atlantic Zika virus probably moved from East Africa to South East Asia during the latter part of the of the colonial era possibly between British colonies in east africa and British colonies in malaysia in 2007 we had the first large outbreak of Zika virus in Yap island in the Pacific Ocean possibly a few thousand cases another observation that came from the oppo Greek was that possibly something like two-thirds to three-quarters of these cases were so my own that we had no symptoms at all Zika viruses next port of call was in Tahiti and Polynesia the Tahiti and her breed was even bigger than the one in the app maybe 25,000 pieces in Tahiti also for the first time we saw rather master symptoms associated with Zika virus guillain-barre syndrome which is an autoimmune paralysis and also retrospective will be North for the first time number of cases of microcephaly and Portland easier / they weren’t identified as such a time in every 2015 the first cases of Zika virus appeared in Brazil and Zika virus subsequently spread to other countries in Latin America and then into the Caribbean further north to make the court and then most recently to Miami the Brazilian outbreak of Zika virus was associated with the first appearance of large numbers of cases of microcephaly as well as Morgan Lombardi syndrome and the first deaths associated with Zika virus have a current layer while Zika virus was spreading across Latin America is also spreading extensively with in Brazil it used to be thought that the 2014 World Cup was the entry point where Zika virus moved from pacific ocean into South America but phylogenetic analysis no suggest that deep slightly too late Zika virus was probably already in the americas by the end of 2015 at the time when the old Greek was still reaching and pulling easier travel returning from South America and in some cases the Caribbean and South East Asia to Zika virus and bike with them to their home countries so we saw cases appearing in parts of Europe and also in China and new zealand in the USC and in Canada Zika virus doesn’t spread in these countries by a mosquito bite because they don’t have the right kind of mosquitoes but we have seen a few cases of on with sexual transmission from travelers who have returned from tropical countries with Zika virus the final step is eco second navigation of the world is its arrival in the keep lead islands from Brazil Zika also turned up in guinea-bissau so which is very close to the keyboard islands but beginning associated virus is the after convenient and is not the video that comes from South America there’s lots we still need to learn about Zika virus we don’t have a treatment and we don’t have a vaccine so obviously those are very big research priorities for the near future there’s also many things that we need to learn about the basic biology of Zika virus it is the American variant more dangerous in the Southeast Asian or African variants does that explain why we’ve seen more microcephaly in the Americas and we’ve seen in Southeast Asia or Africa or could it be that was a population immunity in Africa as we see her community given that Zeke is probably even Africa for several centuries but it’s a very recent introduction to the Americas and the that is having clinical consequences so as we’ve seen Zika virus has spread to almost every corner of the planet we live in an increasingly globalized world so it’s really important that we have coordinated international efforts to tackle Zika virus

1 Comment

  • Reply Vini Yellow April 12, 2018 at 12:10 am

    I am from Brazil and i can say that the most affected áreas are the North east, happilly im Living in South.

  • Leave a Reply