Articles, Blog

The beneficial bacteria that make delicious food – Erez Garty

August 15, 2019

Where does bread get its fluffiness? Swiss cheese its holes? And what makes vinegar so sour? These foods may taste
completely different, but all of these phenomena come from
tiny organisms chowing down on sugar and belching up some culinary byproducts. Let’s start with yeast. Yeast are single-celled fungi
used to make bread, beer, and wine, among other products. Yeast break down carbohydrates,
like sugar, to get energy
and the molecules they need to function. They have two different ways to do this: the oxygen-dependent, or aerobic, pathway, and the oxygen-independent,
anaerobic pathway, which is also called fermentation. When you bake bread,
yeast can use both pathways, but they normally prefer to start with
the anaerobic process of fermentation. In this process, ethanol is produced
in addition to CO2. No, bread isn’t alcoholic. Small amounts of alcohol that are secreted
evaporate during baking. In the aerobic,
or oxygen-dependent pathway, the yeast consume some of the sugar and produce carbon dioxide gas,
or CO2, and water. In both processes, the CO2 accumulates
and creates tiny bubbles. These bubbles get trapped by gluten
and create a sponge-like structure that gives the bread its soft texture. Wine also relies on yeast. But a wine-making set-up
keeps the oxygen levels low so that yeast consume sugar
using fermentation, the anaerobic pathway. The process often starts with wild yeasts
already hanging out on the grapes. But to get consistent results, most winemakers also add
carefully selected strains of yeast that can tolerate high levels of alcohol. The yeast consume the sugar
in the grape juice, and as the sugar level drops, the alcohol level rises. This doesn’t necessarily mean
that sweeter wines have less alcohol. Different types of grapes start with
different amounts of sugar, and sugar can also be added. What happens to the carbon dioxide? It just bubbles away through a vent. In carbonated alcoholic beverages,
like champagne and beer, sealed containers are used in primary
or secondary fermentation to keep the carbon dioxide in the bottle. Wine also introduces us to our second
type of food-producing microorganism: bacteria. A special strain of bacteria turns a tart compound in grape juice
into softer tasting ones that are responsible for some of
the flavors in red wines and chardonnays. Another type of bacteria,
called acetic acid bacteria, isn’t so desirable in wine, but they have their function, too. If there’s oxygen around, these bacteria convert the ethanol in wine
into, well, acetic acid. Let this process continue
and you’ll eventually get vinegar. Bacteria are the key for cheese, too. To make cheese,
milk is inoculated with bacteria. The bacteria gobble up the lactose,
a kind of sugar, and produce lactic acid,
along with many other chemicals. As the milk gets more and more acidic, its proteins start to aggregate
and curdle. That’s why spoiled milk is clumpy. Cheesemakers usually add an enzyme
called rennet, naturally found inside of cows, goats,
and some other mammals to help this process along. Eventually, those little curdles turn into
bigger curds, which are pressed
to squeeze out the water, and create a firm cheese. Different strains of bacteria
make different kinds of cheese. For example, a species of bacteria
that emits carbon dioxide is what gives swiss cheese
its characteristic holes. Some cheeses, brie and camembert,
use another kind of microorganism, too: mold. So your kitchen functions as a sort of
biotechnology lab manned by microorganisms
that culture your cuisine. Yogurt, soy sauce, sour cream, sauerkraut, kefir, kimchi, kombucha,
cheddar, challah, pita, and naan. But maybe not all at the same dinner.


  • Reply Aaron E May 6, 2018 at 12:00 pm

    I had no idea the process was so entertaining.

  • Reply Stephen Bruce May 18, 2018 at 2:07 pm

    Final scientific program updated….

  • Reply Ashis Paria May 19, 2018 at 4:36 pm

    thanks for your help and it had helped me 😍😍😍 in my biology homework 👌👌👍👍👍👍👍👍👍👌👌👌👍💖💖💖💖💖💖💖

  • Reply Mirza Sefrizal May 28, 2018 at 11:49 am

    1:53, Yeast: "Hello!"

  • Reply kebede zewdie June 7, 2018 at 12:37 am

    1:23 not for unleavened bread

  • Reply Amy Petrosyan June 12, 2018 at 5:49 am


  • Reply Amy Petrosyan June 12, 2018 at 5:49 am


  • Reply Sarin June 16, 2018 at 10:30 am

    You forgot mold ☹️

  • Reply Avirat Thakor June 22, 2018 at 2:50 pm

    Great video! The noises from the microorganisms were so cute!

  • Reply door stuck August 2, 2018 at 6:02 am

    C R O N C H

  • Reply dog vader October 19, 2018 at 2:59 pm

    i love your videos. i also love the videos from MinuteEarth

  • Reply JulietaPaulina Garcia October 24, 2018 at 7:57 pm

    When yeast is more active than you

  • Reply Andrea Palma December 10, 2018 at 11:44 pm

    The yeast are very cute

  • Reply Andrea Palma December 10, 2018 at 11:45 pm

    The yeast are very cute

  • Reply Jackie Lim December 13, 2018 at 10:01 pm


  • Reply Yoga Armuza December 14, 2018 at 7:46 am

    Greetings from tempeh here ✌✌

  • Reply TheOfficialMrloggy December 14, 2018 at 9:17 am

    The sound effects

  • Reply Y Agent Blueberry December 15, 2018 at 12:46 am

    Um… sound effects from despicable me

  • Reply Aeruh Bakugo December 15, 2018 at 1:03 am

    The animations are so cute that I waved back at them.

    It's very informative though and keep up the good work! 👍

  • Reply yan chen December 16, 2018 at 1:43 am

    Ted Ed is the best

  • Reply Heli Trivedi December 16, 2018 at 7:13 pm

    The animation is amazing and extremely cute. Very informative video and kudos to the animation creators.

  • Reply Cyberxxx cyberxxx December 17, 2018 at 3:55 am

    Why is the ad an x song

  • Reply Isa Mekail Mahmud December 17, 2018 at 6:02 am

    wait why does the carbondioxide help make the holes

  • Reply Spenezzet December 17, 2018 at 3:48 pm

    i personally love to drink viniger

  • Reply Glory Sky December 17, 2018 at 8:53 pm

    My sis put a container of wine grape juice (from a farm we went to) and a year or so later when my mom was emptying the kitchen, we found vinegar.

  • Reply Cadet Grey December 22, 2018 at 1:32 am

    These alcoholics being generally disappointed that they can’t drink bread lmaooooo 1:05

  • Reply Jamal S December 22, 2018 at 9:50 pm

    C R U N C H

  • Reply Anders Yu December 24, 2018 at 1:30 pm

    Microorganisms microorganisms
    Yes humans
    Eating sugar
    No humans
    Good now help us ferment food

  • Reply Ant-tony 22 December 24, 2018 at 10:43 pm

    No more crunching please

  • Reply ImThatGuy December 25, 2018 at 12:31 pm

    Yeast? You mean…

  • Reply Ariff Aizad December 26, 2018 at 5:00 am

    The aerobic yeast is breathing heavily on my left ears

  • Reply AIDEN GIL RANKIN BALL December 27, 2018 at 3:15 pm

    Can you do a Saïgon reunification palace history

  • Reply Jada-kay Williams December 28, 2018 at 9:58 pm

    Go Lactobacillus

  • Reply MonkeyBoy32904 December 29, 2018 at 8:07 pm

    hmm so it's like humans eating the food but the sun eats the earth? :O mind blown THE SUGARS HAVE LITTLE EATEN PARTS WITH TINIER BACTERIA

  • Reply Stacey Khoo December 30, 2018 at 12:37 pm

    What about the white vinegar used for cleaning

  • Reply Farookh Matawi December 30, 2018 at 7:02 pm

    people who disliked the video:

    OhOh mY gOHde i aEt gEEERRmssSS???? EWEWEWEWEWEWEW

    basically people who do not go to school or failing/failed it

  • Reply Orion D. Hunter January 1, 2019 at 5:04 am

    They were eating
    y a
    m o m s
    p i n k
    h a i r

  • Reply James Garnett January 3, 2019 at 11:20 pm

    that moment you relized that minute earth already made a video about this subject

  • Reply missing missingno January 4, 2019 at 9:51 am


  • Reply Ilikepie Ilikepie January 6, 2019 at 1:51 am

    You put cheese in the thumbnail, instant like.

  • Reply Paul Castillo January 7, 2019 at 1:03 am

    Vegan: I only eat what comes from Plants.
    Vegan: Watches video while eating bread
    Video: Bread gets its taste from Yeast.


  • Reply Joey G January 7, 2019 at 6:38 am

    Yay so I’m not crazy thinking bread smells a little like wine

  • Reply ĪŇ FØ January 7, 2019 at 2:14 pm

    Yeast? More like YEET

  • Reply Muddycarpenter Gaming January 8, 2019 at 4:29 am

    YAY BEZT VIDEO EVER.incame from the chese episode

  • Reply ZHBG 9224 January 12, 2019 at 1:55 pm

    "Sierra, you want some?"

    "This bread fluffy."

    "Y E A S T"

  • Reply Ankon Wahid January 18, 2019 at 9:09 am

    I thought i heard minions

  • Reply The Adventures of Maxite January 19, 2019 at 11:41 am

    Vegan: Eating bread.
    Watchs this video.
    Friend comes.
    Friend- Hey are you vegan or non-vegan?
    Vegan- Vegan
    Friend- I see you eat bread and bacteria is added in there you eat plants and they are living beings you cut there fingers and hands and eat them, You drink water where fishes live you makes fishes homeless you ******!
    Vegan (Said so actually pure non-vegan)- — — ¦}

  • Reply memes on swings January 21, 2019 at 3:53 am

    why do they use the same eating noise for everything

  • Reply TheLapTopX20 January 22, 2019 at 9:29 pm


    i almost thought ted-ed rick-n-rolled me.

  • Reply Luciano Oliveira Silva January 23, 2019 at 12:13 am

    Very good and simple illustration about food biotechnology!!!

  • Reply Davina Jou January 23, 2019 at 2:46 am

    Awww… the little yeast working out…

  • Reply mybrigoli21 January 23, 2019 at 3:19 am


  • Reply Joe Foster January 23, 2019 at 8:20 pm

    hol up, during anerobic respiration lactic acid is produced…

    so cheese is made of excersise!

  • Reply Digicraftmon the Crystal Gem January 29, 2019 at 1:18 am

    I hope no one is going to use this to promote detox nonsense.

  • Reply KaiserRedGamer January 29, 2019 at 11:46 am

    You forgot atsara

  • Reply -Gemberkoekje- February 5, 2019 at 7:38 pm


  • Reply Normie weeb February 6, 2019 at 10:08 am


  • Reply Jasper L. Ferini February 7, 2019 at 10:11 am

    Acidic acid is bassicaly metalic metal

  • Reply Steve Kwok February 20, 2019 at 12:44 pm

    the bacteria are so cute!!!
    they keep saying, "Hello!"

  • Reply ゆずチャンネル February 22, 2019 at 6:14 am

    I consume like half the things he listed at the end on a regular basis 😆 i love it

  • Reply Carri Allers February 23, 2019 at 5:20 pm

    Those biting sounds!

  • Reply Shradha Dixit February 26, 2019 at 11:14 am

    Three cheers for these bacteria

  • Reply Purple pickle Lemon juice February 27, 2019 at 1:34 am

    I don’t like the sound of the bacteria 🦠

  • Reply Starllet Nixie March 9, 2019 at 11:08 pm

    they made bacteria sound and look cute…

  • Reply John Pinto March 11, 2019 at 5:49 am

    If only bacteria was that cute

  • Reply freja Lenschow March 14, 2019 at 1:23 am

    The chewing sound made me unable to watch this video.

  • Reply small pupper March 17, 2019 at 9:21 pm

    who knew bacteria could be so adorable?

  • Reply Carolina Silva March 17, 2019 at 10:35 pm

    yay, im gonna let milk spoil to cheese then! (sarcasticly)

  • Reply Tracy Alsup March 22, 2019 at 4:09 am

    That’s what I want to see when I see bacteria I want THAT!

  • Reply Finny Dinny March 22, 2019 at 2:24 pm

    green m&m with no logo,dorito and a blue peanut.

  • Reply Scott Fa March 23, 2019 at 6:01 pm

    3:54 theres a pac man refrence

  • Reply chamidu de silva March 23, 2019 at 11:49 pm

    yummy bacteria

  • Reply free no copyright music April 3, 2019 at 2:01 pm

    Shampan I thought you said shampoo

  • Reply The Smolest Potato April 6, 2019 at 7:14 pm

    I want cotton candy now

  • Reply Lesh4537 April 12, 2019 at 8:30 pm

    1:07 Aw, they look so sad when their booze bread disappeared.

  • Reply Logan Smedley April 23, 2019 at 8:19 pm

    This doesn't answer my question =(

  • Reply Deimos 22 May 1, 2019 at 7:22 am

    Why are the microorganisms so darn cute

  • Reply Artistic Lion May 5, 2019 at 12:00 am


  • Reply Whosboss 22 May 7, 2019 at 12:18 am

    0:40 Doritos eating cotton candy

  • Reply FederalPhoenix May 7, 2019 at 11:14 pm

    to define this to kids:
    little thingies in our food eat sugar in the food and then poop out the stuff that makes our food delicious

  • Reply meep man May 10, 2019 at 2:47 pm

    Bacteria:east? i thought we were going yeast
    Yeast:did somebody say my name?
    Yeast:oh ok;_;

  • Reply T3rraBlox May 12, 2019 at 4:12 pm

    Yeast? I thought you said, Weast

  • Reply 山田次郎agario May 15, 2019 at 12:42 am


  • Reply Noro Derek May 17, 2019 at 4:04 pm

    Bacteria: some are friendly and help your body out, and also make stuff delicious. some destroy you.

  • Reply Nainika's Biology May 24, 2019 at 6:01 am

    Pls like,share , subscribe my channel…

  • Reply Kanna Snow May 28, 2019 at 4:05 am

    I didn't focus the whole thing because of these bacteria's cuteness 🙂

  • Reply Shalom Ayoola June 1, 2019 at 1:44 am

    i had to watch it twice

  • Reply Aaron Thomas June 10, 2019 at 4:11 am

    Le C O N S U M E

  • Reply K1naku5ana3R1ka June 25, 2019 at 1:50 am

    The animation in this one is so cute, and I love the little details and the passion put into it. Although it does bug me that the sugars are usually shown as pink cotton candy, even when you’re talking about lactose from white milk; you changed it to purple when talking about wine, so why not be a bit more free with the colors?

  • Reply Abdul Aziz July 4, 2019 at 7:33 pm


  • Reply priyaarti July 10, 2019 at 4:35 pm

    So wait your basically saying that my kitchen is a laboratory 😮😮

  • Reply Henry Mcfine July 13, 2019 at 12:33 pm

    Wow! The graphics are awesome. Very interesting topic about bacteria and yeast found in food. Wow. Amazing Stories. 👏👍

  • Reply lune༄ July 14, 2019 at 8:41 pm


  • Reply Debbie Reynolds July 24, 2019 at 8:09 pm

    I love love love your channel it is really great the cartoons and animations are really funny cute and cool and it’s also educational I love channels like that

  • Reply Starbolt Chill July 25, 2019 at 4:27 am

    Kim cheeeeeeee it’s pronounced Keem chee

  • Reply Dorothy Isidro July 30, 2019 at 3:56 pm

    🔲🔳⬛⬜ Yeast
    🔴🔵🔘🌕 Bacteria
    🔺🔻🔼🔽 Mold


  • Reply Ayala Drawz August 6, 2019 at 4:58 pm

    Y E E T S T

  • Reply Not The Biggest Fan Of Candy August 13, 2019 at 2:17 am

    Anybody hungry and thirsty after this?

  • Reply wolfo slavy boi August 15, 2019 at 4:47 am

    Yeast : mmmm I love bread

    Human : NOM BREAD

    yeast : grab GUN

  • Reply IVeon 07 August 15, 2019 at 11:12 am

    This time on YouTube recommendations:

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