Articles, Blog

Seven Wonders of the Microbe World (combined)

August 29, 2019

from black death to cholera and syphilis
to typhoid microbes have been responsible for some of the world’s most
devastating diseases but at the same time these tiny single-cell organisms
have aided our survival on earth helping us produce some of our favorite foods
though humans didn’t realize it at the time microbes were being put to work
over 10,000 years ago in ancient Egypt to create one of our most popular
beverages today beer production is a multi-million pound industry it’s drunk
by over a billion people worldwide who consume more than 133 billion liters of
beer each year yet if it wasn’t for microbes there’d be no beer beer is a
very ancient drink in fact we think it first emerged at about 6,000 BC and we
find evidence of this in ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs and we know that
the Egyptians took their beer extremely seriously some of the hieroglyphs show
they gave names like joy bringer and heavenly to their beer like beer the
Egyptians also enjoyed their wine again highly dependent on our friendly
microbes one inscription found in a tomb made me laugh give me 18 cups of wine
because I want to drink until drunkenness my insides are like straw I
guess it was not a very good idea to deny an Egyptian a drink
some historians have speculated that the ancients stumbled across the power of
microbes to create beer when a piece of bread which contains the yeast needed to
start the fermentation process fell into a vat of soaking grain left to sit and
heat up the soaking grain germinated producing tiny sprouts the perfect food
for the yeast enzymes and as they munched away they produced a kind of
alcoholic gruel which made life a whole lot better
ejection beer was very different from the beer that we
no it had about 10% alcohol content that was quite strong and we know what it was
made of because the Egyptians were very methodical at writing down how they made
their bits in the 1980s people were able to recreate the beer of Tutankhamun
based on hieroglyph information and it was very different beer actually a
rather unpleasant taste because it was a mixture of hops and honey and all sorts
of ingredients that are quite alien to us in terms of a beer and their methods
of drinking beer might get some strange looks in a modern English pub in some
tomb paintings Egyptians are seen drinking their beer from ceramic cups
through tubes somewhat like drinking with a straw the perforated straw
filtered out the solid bits from the drink so how do you brew the perfect
beer different kinds of yeasts have different optimum environments and
produce different kinds of beer the bottom fermenting lager yeast prefers
lower temperatures and ferments more slowly the top fermenting ale yeast
gathers at the top of the fermenting vessel and prefers higher temperatures
and works quite vigorously you can choose your preferred taste with
different types of malts grains and hops or even the addition of fruits and
spices but after that it’s all down to the yeast microbes it was the invention of the microscope
in 1683 which allowed Dutchman Antony van Leeuwenhoek to discover microbes
using his own homemade microscopes the so-called father of microbiology was the
first to observe and describe single-celled organisms which he
originally called animal tools today less than 5% of all known microbes cause
disease but back in the 14th century the bacterium microbe that causes bubonic
plague or the Black Death as it was also known became the deadliest microbe of
them all black death is spread by the microbe yesenia pestis invading and
growing inside rats fleas cats dogs farm animals and humans it thrives at around
37 degrees Celsius the exact temperature of a healthy human body the way in which
black death works is rather gruesome the microorganisms divide inside the flea it
causes a blockage in the stomach of the flea and then the flea gets hungry and
the starving flea goes after a human being for a drink of blood in the
process of trying to drink the blood it regurgitates the microbes into the
bloodstream of the unfortunate black death victim in the victims bloodstream
the invading microbe is detected by the body’s immune system which launches
white blood cells in defense but instead of the bacterium being killed it
multiplies inside the cell eventually the white blood cell dies and the
Yersinia pestis bacteria flood out stronger than before more white blood
cells attack but now your senior pestis is powerful enough to paralyze them it
starts off with a sneeze and a fever it’s a bit like flu and perhaps the
person who got it didn’t think there is much wrong with them but then you start
to get these black lesions on your skin called buboes in fact that’s how the
disease gets its name black death and these buboes appear under your armpits
in your joints it’s excruciating ly painful these people are forced into bed
and eventually these buboes begin to exceed a pus from inside them and you
die a slow excruciating death May over many days and very very few people
recovered from the disease the major 14th century outbreak of the
Black Death originated Mongolia around 1330 and quickly spread along trade
routes through Asia and into Europe in just four years
from 1347 to 1352 plague killed around 75 million people worldwide including
1/3 of the entire population of Europe it reached England in the summer of 1348
church records showed that between 1348 and 1350 around 40% of the English
population died black death was a very egalitarian disease everyone from the
poor to the rich was affected and even Princess Joan King Edward the third
favorite daughter was killed by Black Death
it affected young and old men and women rich poor and the clergy in rural and
urban settings alike one of the interesting social implications of the
Black Death is that church leaders were not able to provide any explanation for
how this disease was caused and as a result the authority of church leaders
began to be eroded and people began to question whether they should even listen
to religious leaders at all some people have even said that the
English Reformation was caused by the Black Death with whole villages
abandoned a new class of entrepreneurs began to take over neighboring lands
left idle spending their newly acquired wealth on distinctive buildings and
memorials ties to land and landlord were breaking up from your senior pestis and
the Black Death a new social order was emerging black death was undoubtedly one
of the world’s most deadly microbiological invasions in their
ignorance people tried all sorts of ways to fend off Black Death such as using
pouches of sweet-smelling harps but of course in the end none of these things
would save them microbes are responsible for creating
some of our most enjoyable food products such as cheese bread yogurt and of
course beer but other microbes such as Salmonella Listeria or ecoli Oh 157 can
do as a great deal of harm in the UK alone there are more than 10 million
cases of gastroenteritis each year a concoction of symptoms such as nausea
vomiting diarrhea and stomach pain caused by eating and drinking food
contaminated by microbes since ancient times we have done our utmost to keep
them out if you leave fresh food lying around one of the first things that
happens is that microbes land on it and they start to deteriorate the food over
time and one of the worst things they can do is start to produce toxins that
can be poisonous to anyone eating that food and the ancients discovered a very
very long time ago that one way to stop this is to try and preserve food they
used a variety of methods such as salting drying icing pickling smoking
and fermentation for beer cheese and bread all of which we still use today
you can deny microbes water by turning the food very sugary for example making
jam or we can put salt on our food and that’s why people use to salt meat in
the days before refrigerators to stop microbes from growing one of the
characteristics of microbes is that they’re very sensitive to temperature
many of them don’t like cold temperatures many of them don’t like hot
temperatures and so we can preserve food by changing its temperature on one way
in which we do this is to put food in a refrigerator
we also boil food that’s a very common way to preserve it and the way in which
that’s working is to kill microbes that can’t really grow at high temperatures
boiling doesn’t kill all the microbes just most of them some bacteria are
actually resistant to the temperature of boiling water which is a hundred degrees
Celsius to get rid of them you need to raise the temp
to about 121 degrees but you can only do this by heating water under pressure a
common method of food preservation using this technique is canning which was
developed by the French confectioner Nicholas a pair in the 1790s a pair
began experimenting with ways to preserve foodstuffs succeeding with
soups vegetables juices dairy products jellies jams and syrups he placed the
food in glass jars sealed them with cork and sealing wax and placed them in
boiling water and then there’s alcohol and acid many microbes can’t survive
alcohol whereas yeast can which makes it an effective form of preservation acid
conditions such as vinegar or pickling also inhospitable environment for
microbes pickling to keep out microbes is responsible for some of our most
famous brands in 1922 in Burton Staffordshire Cross & Blackwell produced
the very first jar of Branston Pickle 28 million jars of it are now sold every
year still keeping out the microbes as it did
90 years ago one thing you have to remember is that if you refrigerate food
and the microbes on it you only slow down the growth of the microbes you
don’t actually kill them so when you get back from holiday or might not quite be
as you left it microbes are the oldest form of life on
earth they first appeared about 3.5 billion years ago and are critically
important in sustaining our life on Earth today microbes generate at least
half of the oxygen we breathe but in 1885 the Dutch microbiologist Martina
Speier Inc discovered another critical function they performed fixing nitrogen nitrogen fixing bacteria are absolutely
essential for life because they fix nitrogen one of the key elements one of
the key building blocks of all of our cells and all of our biochemistry all
animals and plants on the earth depend upon it but also human beings the only
way that we can get nitrogen is through the food that we eat that was originally
fixed by the bacteria although around 80% of the Earth’s atmosphere is made of
nitrogen it’s too stable for most plants and animals to break down but that’s
where the microbes come in bacteria in the soil fix the nitrogen that means
they combine it with oxygen or hydrogen into compounds that plants can make use
of some nitrogen fixing microbes have even developed a symbiotic relationship
with certain plants like peas and beans nitrogen enters the food chain as a
result of microbes taking it from the air and converting it into more
accessible compounds such as ammonia which plants can then take up these
nitrogen fixing bacteria often live in the roots of legumes like beans and the
bean plants are very clever they send out hairs from their roots that track
these bacteria in and the bacteria essentially take up residence in the
roots of these plants these bacteria are incorporated into root nodules and any
special protective houses bacteria work anaerobically to fix nitrogen into
ammonia using a special enzyme called nitrogenous which combines hydrogen and
nitrogen in 1909 the German Fritz Harbor discovered how to fix nitrogen
chemically to create ammonia leading to the production of inorganic fertilizers
on an industrial scale one third of the world’s population is now sustained by
crops grown using artificial fertilizers but inorganic fertilizers can be bad for
the environment and plants that contain nitrogen fixing
bacteria can often grow in much poorer soils in other plants so they’re
extremely useful for farmers the farmers can grow the nitrogen-fixing plants the
bacteria will fix the nitrogen and then they can come along with a plough and
churn those plants into the soil and thereby enrich the soil with nitrogen
this is one way in which nitrogen fixing bacteria are so essential for our
agriculture crop rotation uses the symbiotic relationship between plants
and microbes to fertilize the soil naturally it’s being practiced since
ancient people began to farm historic rotation methods are mentioned in Roman
literature and referred to by several civilizations in Asia today this ancient
technique has become the cornerstone of modern organic farming so what are these
nitrogen fixing bacteria teach us they teach us that human beings not only
require microbes are not only useful for us we actually depend upon them for our
survival microbes mostly tiny bacteria make up around 90 percent of the cells
in a typical human body and ten percent of our body weight most of them are in
our gut and on our skin many microbes are beneficial for example helping us to
digest our food only a tiny fraction cause disease and are usually kept in
check by our immune system but when they aren’t microbes also help us to fight
back bacteria cause disease when they are able to reproduce in the body they
produce harmful substances called toxins which damaged tissues and organs but in
nature microbes can also produce agents called antibiotics to protect themselves
against competitors it’s a tough world out there and you might think that you
just see competition in the savannahs of Africa but in fact the microbes fight
each other as well in fact like martial arts they have ways of fighting other
microbes with particular moves and one move they have is to produce antibiotics
these are compounds that allow them to kill other microbes and take all the
food for themselves or the resources that they need and so the
competition between microbes results in these very sophisticated antibiotic
molecules the discovery of antibiotics and their power to fight bacterial
disease began with Alexander Fleming he observed the mold penicillium notatum
accidentally growing on a sample of staphylococci and saw it had killed the
surrounding colonies of disease-causing bacteria all antibiotics work by
disrupting a critical function in the bacterial cell for example penicillin
discovered in 1928 prevents the cell from renewing its cell wall during
growth eventually the cell wall weakens and bursts by the 1950s the use of
antibiotics had revolutionized the treatment of previously untreatable
infectious diseases in 1967 the Surgeon General of the United States of America
William Stewart declared the time has come to close the book on infectious
diseases we have basically wiped out infection in the United States but
Stewart’s optimism proved premature the bad news is that microbes can become
resistant to antibiotics and they can change their biochemistry toward it in
order to adapt to these antibiotics and prevent the antibiotics from damaging
the cell its standard evolutionary behavior when bacteria reproduce chance
mutations occur most will be useless but sometimes there will be one that will
protect the bacterium against a particular antibiotic while most of the
bacteria succumb to the antibiotic the one that survives goes on to reproduce
and replicate the resistance and bacteria reproduce very fast scientists
are on an endless quest to develop new antibiotics to defeat resistant bacteria
so-called superbugs but they must be used properly wise produce or misuse of
antibiotics for minor infections means that more bacteria become exposed and so
there’s more chance of resistance developing and spreading through the
microbe world GPS prescribe a hundred and thirty three million courses of
antibiotics every year it’s estimated that 50% of these prescriptions are
unnecessary and by taking antibiotics that Udo
need you could be making yourself more at risk from the disease if you don’t
complete your antibiotic course you expose the microbe to concentrations of
antibiotic which don’t kill it some bacteria such as Mrs a have become
highly drug-resistant these superbugs aren’t some complex and new set of
diseases merely variations of common bacteria that we used to find easy to
control the good news is that scientists are developing new synthetic antibiotics
to target resistant bacteria but who knows whether one day a mutated
bacterium might become resistant to all synthetic antibiotics a super super bug microbes outnumber all other species and
make up most living matter they’re invaluable for humans to survive and
thrive and we’re continually discovering how to exploit them including
genetically modifying them to produce medicines food and fuel the first
organisms to be genetically modified were ecoli bacteria by Herbert Boyer and
Stanley Cohen in 1973 eco light is a common inhabitant of the human colon
it’s simple to grow and can be easily manipulated and duplicated today
bacteria and yeast which cause so many human diseases are being genetically
altered to help cure illness genetic engineering is really about adding
things to microbes it’s about rewriting their instruction
manuals to produce something different perhaps something useful to us like
drugs we’re essentially turning them into tiny factories one example is
insulin which should be produced naturally in the pancreas to regulate
the amount of sugar in the blood when it’s not produced we get diabetes
previously natural insulin was extracted from the pancreas of cow and pig
carcasses in abbatoirs but it’s expensive and difficult to ensure an
adequate supply in the 1980’s scientists discovered how to produce human insulin
by transplanting the genetic information for the human insulin hormone
from a human cell into the DNA of the e coli bacterium this reprograms the
bacteria to produce insulin in just the same way as they make their own proteins
in fact the genetic modification of microbes is transforming our ability to
combat all sorts of diseases a very good example of this is lactobacillus this is
a bacterium that naturally lives in your gut it protects you against urinary
tract infections and other diseases and this microbe is now being engineered as
a possible treatment for HIV we have high hopes for a new malaria treatment
produced by genetically engineered bacteria and yeast that will be cheap
enough to give to anyone who needs it in South America and Africa as demand
increases for alternatives to conventional fuels scientists are hoping
that genetically modifying microbes could also produce a sustainable
solution to our energy needs they want to use the bacteria and yeast to break
down organic waste products like the stems leaves and husks from crops and
excrete bio fuels like ethanol and butanol as their waste product ethanol
has been heralded as a cleaner greener fuels and petrol and East naturally
produces ethanol from sugars and ability traditionally used for mint beer this
has huge implications since currently biofuel production uses
starch crops like corn and sugar which are extremely expensive microbes are
also being genetically engineered into our clothing infusing clothes with
bacteria or viruses may give them super properties such as the ability to self
clean or naturally glow in the dark so the tag on your t-shirt may one day read
99% cotton and 1% eco lie millions of years before humans appeared
microbes were thriving here on earth yet less than half of 1% of the estimated 2
to 3 billion microbial species have ever been identified today the search for new
microbes able to survive in the world’s most extreme conditions is helping us to
address one of the last remaining challenges is there life beyond Earth microbes thrive in an extraordinary
range of habitats and often where no other life-forms could exist these
include freezing conditions very similar to the permafrost of Mars this could
help us prove that life may have been possible on Mars and on other planets
too the search for life on Mars is a seshu
detective story it’s about looking for those telltale signatures of life may be
changes to rocks maybe parts of microbes left over those parts of the evidence
that all come together and tell us that Mars once had life or maybe even has
life Mars and the earth share many physical similarities for example Mars
has deserts glaciers and polar caps to help us we’re looking on the earth for
the most new and different microbes living in the most extreme environments
which are similar to the environments on Mars this way we can study the
signatures the microbes leave behind scientists have found many rocks on Mars
look like they were in contact with water and that tells us that there were
environments on Mars that may have been like environments on earth environments
that we know contain microorganisms and this provides us with some compelling
evidence that this is a planet that might once have harbored life we’re
looking for signs of subsurface microbes living there now or in the past we’re
looking for key indicators associated with life and this are the building
blocks of the cell once we know where to look on earth we can design and build
instruments which can search similar environments on Mars in fact scientists
testing equipment in similar geological conditions to Mars recently discovered a
rare and complex microbial community living in blue ice vents
inside the remote and frozen 1 million year old spare f gel volcano in Norway
we know that Mars once had water because we can see evidence of old river valleys
but the atmosphere on Mars is much thinner than Earth so it doesn’t protect
the surface from radiation from space and makes life there impossible today
the only place where microbes might still survive perhaps in pockets of
water is deep underground so drilling is the only option but it might mean going
several meters below the surface studying rocks that have been in contact
with water studying rocks that contain
microorganisms on earth helps us develop instrumentation to go and look for this
life on Mars so it’s really about gaining an
understanding of where microbes are on earth to help us look for life on Mars
this information is helping the development of a life marker chip as
part of the ExoMars Rover expedition in 2018 it’s an instrument incorporated
into the rover traveling across the surface of the planet collecting and
analyzing soil and rock samples and looking for specific molecules
associated with life people get terribly excited about the possibility of life on
Mars but we have to remember it’s just testing a hypothesis it may be that
we’ll find no evidence of life on Mars in the most compelling places that we
think it might have grown it would be just as remarkable to find no life on
Mars as to find life on Mars because that would tell us that despite the fact
that Mars was very similar to Earth in its early history something was missing
for life


  • Reply truvelocity November 29, 2011 at 9:37 pm

    Woo hoo, combined version.

  • Reply OpenLearn from The Open University December 2, 2011 at 11:00 am

    @TableWolfMusic (1/2) Whether people are able to recover from an infection is basically a numbers game: can your white blood cells multiply rapidly enough to eliminate the bacteria, or do the bacteria multiply so fast that they overwhelm your cells? The very few people who were able to survive black death did so because their bodies' responses to the infection were robust enough to overcome the numbers of microbes…

  • Reply OpenLearn from The Open University December 2, 2011 at 11:00 am

    @TableWolfMusic (2/2) …This means either that somehow they were able to produce more white blood cells to fight the bacteria, or the bacteria multiplied more slowly in those people and so never reached overwhelming numbers.

  • Reply MegaGood5 January 11, 2012 at 8:38 am

    Thanks so much! Awesomee

  • Reply deanmullen10 February 14, 2012 at 10:34 pm

    There is around 714 quadrillion times more microbes than there are humans in the world. As a conscious being the odds of been born a human is far too unlikely compared to the odds of been born a microbe.

    So as you are a human, you must conclude there is a reason for this, surly its not just pure chance. I theorize microbes are not conscious and you couldn't have been born them. If microbes aren't conscious, we conclude consciousness evolved later in evolutionary history. Perhaps at fishes.

  • Reply Jeffrey Chiu August 19, 2012 at 2:52 am

    or it might be that mices and mites did not bte the 66 percent of the people. and those people are more hygienic.

  • Reply bryncomeaux August 23, 2012 at 2:21 pm

    it accidentally fell in? thats is sooooo stupid as if people didn't experiment, leave soaked grains out too long or do all sorts of stuff. this is such crap. knock it off it insults the inteligence of people across all time and space.

  • Reply bryncomeaux August 23, 2012 at 2:23 pm

    fruits naturally ferment on the tree people have eaten them and gotten a buzz theres your start of alcohol its naturally occurring

  • Reply J Mundiz September 25, 2012 at 9:59 pm

    Ever heard the story of the horse that ate the fermented apples & turned into a jackass?

  • Reply echafaud October 30, 2012 at 12:42 pm

    ….nothing more than a elementary school level documentary with a jolly and very annoying music piece looping in the background the whole time.
    "water, which boils at 100 C"
    "one thing you have to remember if you refrigerate food you only slow down the growth of the microbes you don't kill them"
    "antibiotics these are compounds that allow them to kill other microbes and take all the food for themselves"
    …made for idiots like I said

  • Reply Treckorz November 1, 2012 at 9:15 pm

    Beer wasn't first brewed in Egypt It was In Iraq by the ancient Mesopotamians. So was the straw. The first straw ever invented to drink beer was by the Mesopotamians, It was a golden straw. Why are they teaching wrong history??

  • Reply sinephase November 2, 2012 at 3:43 pm

    so? o.O
    if you're so smart maybe you can realize you aren't the target audience? Do you know what a target audience is? Its significance when producing content?
    BTW being ignorant doesn't make you an idiot. Calling people that don't have certain information idiots only goes to show you're the idiot.

  • Reply Ad Stone November 3, 2012 at 9:00 pm

    so theres little ugly fish swimming ibn my beer?? i cant believe theyre walking all over me

  • Reply ouaiscestvrai November 13, 2012 at 8:12 pm

    What? Beer was stronger in Ancient Egypt? MAGIC SCHOOL BUS LIED TO ME!!!!!!!!!!

  • Reply Manuel Solís January 3, 2013 at 9:53 pm

    I miss Louis Pasteur, what about him?

  • Reply Elvis Florian January 17, 2013 at 6:50 pm

    Where can I buy an e.coli shirt I want one

  • Reply asectic vadam February 26, 2013 at 6:59 pm

    learned a lot

  • Reply Xandermorph March 16, 2013 at 3:12 am

    It's pretty ironic, isn't it? Horrible as the plague epidemic was, there's a very good chance that, had it not happened, Europe – and Great Britain in particular – may well have never left the Feudal Age.
    Actually that'd be a pretty awesome set-up for an alternate universe type of story, a la the novel "Proteus Operation" or the TV shows Sliders or Dr. Who 🙂

  • Reply drogbian April 8, 2013 at 5:18 pm

    Very long massage

  • Reply Thomas Ransdell April 26, 2013 at 1:32 am

    Don't know why but whenever the light background music starts I keep thinking it will be walking on the sun by smash mouth

  • Reply Jeff Dumsley May 7, 2013 at 6:47 am

    As the evidence has revealed itself to us beings on earth it is of great importance getting the facts of where we came from for lots of interesting info visit Truth Contest x" com

  • Reply Institute of Educational Technology May 7, 2013 at 9:47 am

    We are interested in knowing more about the people who view or download materials from The Open University on YouTube and what they do with them. This is to help us make the site and materials better. Please take our survey by finding the link on The Open University Youtube channel OUlearn or on surveymonkey survey number W8VTB97. Thank you.

  • Reply uls54e98engd May 28, 2013 at 8:34 am

    14 minutes of the same background music gave me a headache

  • Reply MasterWolf99 August 10, 2013 at 6:57 am

    14:48 smiley faced white blood cells

  • Reply Rixar13 November 27, 2013 at 1:14 am

    This little documentary is talking about microbes and why some are good, some are bad and what they have done for mankind. – See more at:

  • Reply tubeyerself2 November 27, 2013 at 5:21 am

    MMS cures Malaria according to the tests that the Red Cross accidentally allowed to happen by trying to disprove the efficacy of Jim Humbles MMS rediscovery.

  • Reply Alan Hendah December 7, 2013 at 8:16 pm

    All things you need to know about microbes, life & the universe is on site below.

    Visit >>>TruthContest<<< on google & click link (ThePresent)

    A wonderful free book that will show you many mysterious facts not many know of.

  • Reply Ravji Pindoria February 4, 2014 at 10:02 pm

    Excellent Video. Thank you for sharing

  • Reply sportydiver February 5, 2014 at 2:01 am

    These new viruses. H1N1, H9N7, Aids, Lyme disease have been created in labs. Take your probiotics and sauerkraut and fermented foods. Now all of this pollution and radiation from manmade nuclear weapon powerplants world wide is disrupting the ecosystem. Humans will end up killing themselves.

  • Reply Chayanna Silva February 20, 2014 at 9:45 pm

    The best video!!

  • Reply Thomas Giam Singapore June 8, 2014 at 8:14 am

    Seven Wonders of the Microbe World

  • Reply Anton-Constantin July 11, 2014 at 6:55 am

    My shirt 90% virus.

  • Reply Randall Kelnhofer July 13, 2014 at 12:05 am


  • Reply Zanodia August 12, 2014 at 7:07 pm

    Would you be safer from the plague if you had a low white blood-cell count to begin with?

  • Reply Abdulaziz Andijani August 17, 2014 at 9:18 am

    I came for bacteria, not beer making -____-

  • Reply Juliesunshine 333 October 7, 2014 at 7:39 pm

    Doncha' just LOVE this invisible world?! Fascinating stuff here. Thanx for sharing with us giants. :•D

  • Reply Jon B November 25, 2014 at 4:13 am

    I just got shoted with Penicillin, cmon good bacteria, kill those syphilis baddies! I need my penis!

  • Reply Undi vided March 7, 2015 at 11:03 pm

    I don't think there is sufficient data published to claim that 90% of cells in typical human body are microbes. No evidence for that.

  • Reply Alex Snowberg March 24, 2015 at 5:52 am

    What microbes can survive boiling temperatures? 

  • Reply Tomer Binyamin September 18, 2015 at 2:57 am

    It's pretty disrespectful and not very smart to think that a piece of bread accidentally fall into a jar of forgotten socking grain and then when found, the guy who ran into it would be tempted to drink this bubbling mess? This is obviously not how the beer was invented but thanks for the interesting video anyways!

  • Reply Jade Hennessy January 20, 2016 at 12:24 pm

    amazing !

  • Reply veenyx June 3, 2016 at 3:38 am

    amazing i love it!

  • Reply I'mVeryOffended September 17, 2016 at 1:32 pm

    It's my biology homework to watch this video. Why can't all my homework be that easy!

  • Reply ApparitioN February 6, 2017 at 6:18 pm

    Disliked so that it was at 30 dislikes.

  • Reply TheFixer February 12, 2017 at 7:57 pm

    watch the documentary : "In search of balance"

  • Reply Shammahmoe Orito March 3, 2017 at 12:24 pm

    They are wow I wish to visit one place

  • Reply Fritz Smith. Games and more. June 20, 2017 at 9:49 pm

    fave food prodects beer? what if soem peopel watching teis dont drink? huh? then its not 'everones favorete

  • Reply Thomas Bingel September 16, 2018 at 5:32 am

    Very recommendable

  • Reply Bradley Bernard June 13, 2019 at 4:12 am

    Everyone in my class that sees this please like

  • Reply Miles Tunbridge June 13, 2019 at 4:13 am

    Wassup bois hi brad

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