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Pydna 168 BC – Macedonian Wars DOCUMENTARY

February 18, 2020

The defeat at the battle of Callinicus was
the first the Romans suffered during the conquest of Greece, but they were ever tenacious and
the Macedonian Wars would continue. King Perseus was willing to drive the invaders out, while
the Roman Republic sent another commander to the area. The fate of Greece was decided
at the battle of Pydna. This video is sponsored by Filmora9! Filmora9
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powerful video editor via the links in the description! By the end of 169, Rome’s position in Greece
nevertheless appeared precarious, and only the arrival in 168 of the new consul – Lucius
Aemilius Paullus breathed fresh life into the foundering Roman cause in Greece. The first century Greek biographer Plutarch
informs us that this scion of the prominent Aemilii patrician family did not even want
to be consul at this point, as he had already failed during his run for a second term. However,
his previous victories against the Lusitani and Inguani tribes had not been forgotten.
The senate believed him to be the best candidate on their list to bring order to Greece once
again. Eventually, overwhelmed by the constant requests for him to stand for office, Aemilius
was elected and immediately given the Macedonian command. Plutarch also tells us that after
his election as consul for 168, Aemilius went home to find his daughter in distress. Naturally,
the father asked what was the matter. His daughter, embracing Aemilius with sad tears
in her eyes, told the consul that their little dog was dead. That dog’s name, so the story
goes, was Perseus. Possibly apocryphal stories aside, the force which Aemilius took command
of was large: two especially strengthened Roman and allied legions totalling around
22,000 legionary heavy infantry. The allied legions now comprised various peoples who,
until recently, had been long standing enemies of Rome, such as the Etruscans and Samnites.
Supporting the heavy troops were thousands more light infantry, including velites, Pergamene
troops and Greek allies. 4,000 cavalry also mounted up in the Roman army, including a
thousand of the infamous Numidian cavalry under their prince Misagenes. With the North
African troops also came 22 imposing war elephants. Perseus meanwhile had around 44,000 foot and
4,000 horse on his side of the field. 21,000 of the infantry comprised the fearsome phalangists
with their Sarissa pikes and phalanx formation, which reached a mile in length. Supporting
this moving wall of pikes were light troops, auxiliaries such as the Thracian javelinmen
and Illyrian archers. After advancing into Thessaly in the summer of 168, Aemilius marched
south, meeting Perseus at the foot of mount Olympus, where he had drawn up his army in
a highly defensible position. The Antigonids were dug in on the west bank of the Elpeus
river, just east of the mountain and had easy access to the nearby town of Dium. With typical
Roman grit, it seems like the fact that Perseus had such a position did not bother the legionaries
and, eager to redeem their honour after Callinicus, urged Aemilius to attack immediately As a
retort, Aemilius told his men to mind their place and underlined the fact that they would
fight when and how he told them to. In order to dislodge Perseus from his defensive
position, Aemilius assigned a subordinate – Publius Cornelius Scipio Nasica, to launch
a feint towards the sea with 3,500 allied infantry and 5,000 legionaries. Under the
cover of darkness, he would march through an unguarded pass in order to surprise Perseus.
This might have gotten the jump on Macedon’s king, but a Cretan auxiliary in the Roman
army defected and informed his fellow Greeks of the Roman plan. Reacting immediately to
this alarming news, Perseus sent a general named Milo with 2,000 Macedonians and 10,000
Thracian mercenaries to oppose the Roman passage. Though Nasica hadn’t expected this resistance,
upon his arrival in the pass he ordered a charge. The mountain fighting in the narrow
defiles and passages was bloody and brutal, and Nasica himself supposedly came toe to
toe with a fearsome Thracian soldier, slaying him with the pilum javelin. Rome’s legionaries
doggedly stabbed and slashed their way through the mountain pass, routing the Macedonians,
who then fled back to the main army and informed Perseus of the defeat. Realising that the
loss of this mountain pass would render his position vulnerable, the king immediately
decamped and marched away from the mountain. While Aemilius moved through the mountain
pass and emerged onto the foothills around Mount Olocrus, Perseus drew up his army behind
a river on the plain below, near the town of Pydna. The handpicked field of battle was fantastic
for the Macedonian phalanx, and Perseus’ position atop a small ridge and behind the
river gave him a distinct advantage. Aemilius knew this and so did not advance just yet,
remaining in his camp on the hills. The general’s officers, especially Nasica, quickly became
restless and wanted to attack immediately. Stoically, Aemilius smiled and advised Nasica
not to be so hasty, informing him of the folly of attacking a phalanx on such ground. The
Romans did not waste their time, and constructed a marching camp for that night. When darkness
had fallen and the soldiers were resting around the various campfires and sleeping in their
tents, the moon suddenly grew dark, its white colour shifting to a dull red. The superstitious
men in the Macedonian camp were deeply affected and surprised by what was apparently a bad
omen. A moon which seemed to bleed red, had Zeus abandoned them? At the same time, the
equally pious Romans did not react as badly, why was this? A military tribune of the Roman
army – Caius Sulpicius Gallus, was a learned Astronomer. The day before, he approached
his general and gained his permission to assembly the soldiers, informing them that such an
event – that we know as a solar eclipse, would occur on the following night. He urged the
soldiers not to see such a thing as an ill omen, as it was a regular, predictable and
natural thing. Therefore, when the eclipse did occur, the Roman soldiers simply followed
their commander in offering sacrifices to the Greek gods, promising to hold games in
Heracles’ honour. The gestures worked and the Roman soldier’s morale was unaffected. With both leaders engaging one another in
a dangerous staring contest, it would take a spark for the flames to ignite. Said spark
came in the form of a misbehaving mule. In order to fill up jugs of water for the thirsty
Roman soldiers, who wore heavy armour, a small train of mules was led down to a stream below
the foothills by lighter troops. Like the stubborn creatures they are, one of the parched
pack animals supposedly scented the water and bolted away from its handlers. The water-gatherers
ran after it, and discovered that a group of Perseus’ Thracian troops were doing the
same. Moreover, the enemy was attempting to steal their mule. The irritated, frustrated
and scorching Roman soldiers were not going to give up that mule, and a brawl broke out
over the animal. Runners on both sides went to get help, while the mule probably just
ran off. Perseus saw an opportunity to draw the Romans down from the uneven foothills
of Mount Olocrus, and marched his entire army out of the camp and straight towards the brawl
at the stream. The Romans could see what was going on from their camp, and they were furious,
demanding angrily to be allowed to march out and fight. Aemilius risked mutiny if he refused
and so, gave the signal to form up. After only allowing his legions a brief amount of
time to form up, he swiftly commanded the advance, aiming to save the men at the stream. At that moment, the marching phalangists were
given the order to lower their pikes. In unison, the first five ranks held their sarissae horizontally,
and the ranks behind kept them at a 45 degree angle. Then, they advanced. Against the barely
armoured Roman light troops, whose main job was to skirmish at a distance, the phalangists
met almost no serious resistance, and simply tore through the enemy ranks. Valiantly trying
to buy the Romans more time, an auxiliary tribal leader named Salvius obtained his unit’s
standard and threw it into the phalanx. This galvanised the pressured soldiers, and they
furiously tried to get it back. This resulted in massive casualties, but slowed the advance
of the phalanx and allowed some men to escape. Aemilius’ main force was now closing in,
and the swarm of velites and other skirmishers threw their missiles at the phalanx, mostly
to no effect. The legionary heavy infantry, having witnessed the slaughter of their more
lightly armoured comrades, became frightened and began to slow down. They saw the sheer
size of the steamroller that approached them and their morale started to wane. Aemilius
had to act right now, otherwise his shortsword armed men were going to be slaughtered on
the flat ground. So, the general ordered an immediate withdrawal and ceded the plains
to Perseus, moving for the foothills once again. Owing to the phenomenal discipline
of the Roman legions, the retreat was carried out successfully, and Aemilius now had some
breathing room to attack. Wheeling his horse to the right flank, he ordered the wing of
34 elephants to charge forward, with a mass of cavalry behind them. The Thracian and mercenary skirmishers immediately
in the path of this charge were ideal troops for dealing with elephants, but they were
exhausted and failed to concentrate enough missiles. The elephant vanguard caught them
on a bad day, and they carved a bloody hole into Perseus’ left wing. The cavalry then
streamed around the elephants and mopped up those that were left, leaving the agema on
the leftmost edge of the phalanx completely exposed. The victorious Roman right wing chased
the retreating skirmishers, and then slowly began to reform slightly behind Perseus’
line. Throughout this battle on the edge of the field, the phalanx had been pursuing the
withdrawing legions into the foothills and onto rough ground. With the infantry screen
already gone, the rightmost legionary unit swung inward and drove into the phalanx’s
vulnerable left. At the same time, gaps gradually began to open in the phalanx due to the increasing
uneven terrain. Aemilius took full advantage of this, riding up and down the line, shouting
at his men to attack. Whether or not he was heard, the Roman centurions knew what they
were doing, and led their men into the now-exposed arteries of the Macedonian phalanx. The pressure
now began to mount. Fighting in unfavourable close quarters combat and hit on the flank,
the phalanx began to slowly fragment. Aemilius, who had retreated to a position of command
on the heights, saw small streams of Antigonid troops fleeing from the rear of the infantry
block. The coup de grâce was delivered by the now-regrouped Roman right flank. The elephants
and cavalry now charged at the disintegrating army of Perseus’ and utterly routed it.
Last to fall were the 3,000 elite agema of Perseus. Not a single one of these valiant
men fled and they fought to the last men, while their king fled on his horse. One of
the greatest phalanxes ever had been crushed, and Alexander the Great’s military legacy
was finally buried, the legion would rule the field of battle from this point on. 20,000 of Perseus’ troops were killed and
11,000 more were captured, including Perseus himself. This man, who was to be the final
Antigonid king, was captured after hiding his crown, removing his royal robes and taking
refuge in a temple on Samothrace. When brought before Aemilius, Perseus wept pitifully, much
to the Roman general’s disgust. Given the ‘title’ of Macedonicus by the senate,
the victorious general was voted a triumph and rode through Rome on his chariot. The
treasures of Macedon and his victorious troops marched behind him. Finally, Perseus followed
them in chains, still sobbing. The Antigonid line, which descended from the revered one-eyed
general of Alexander the Great, was extinguished, and the Macedonian kingdom was forever gone. We always have more stories to tell, so make
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on the next one.


  • Reply Kings and Generals February 16, 2020 at 1:55 pm

    Did you know that we have a podcast and its first season covered the Diadochi Wars – Now you do! 🙂

  • Reply Normacly February 17, 2020 at 5:23 am

    Many people are arguing about the formations and troop make ups, when the biggest factor in these battles came down to leadership.
    The Romans have two capable generals, allowing them to quickly respond to different flanks. Not to mention lesser officers, who have the authority to command men to respond to any local situations instantly rather than relying on the distanced commander for everything.
    The Romans were able to divide into two separate but effective forces. The Latin allied leader's decision to throw his standard into the enemy ranks to encourage his men to stall the enemies. The Centurions leading the men to flank the Macedoniams and to target the phalanx gaps. Finally, the elephant and cavalry officers being able to regroup their units and to deliver the final blow.
    Lesser officers is what make or break a army and its general. Look at Napoleon, he remained a great general till his final defeat, but his defeats increased as he begun to lose his capable officers.

  • Reply Eric Schwartz February 17, 2020 at 5:24 am

    High quality, but the chat bubbles should stay at the other guy’s channel better known for the hammy slap stick

  • Reply Salamandra February 17, 2020 at 6:03 am

    Makedon not Invicta.

  • Reply Athaporn MCorp Review February 17, 2020 at 6:15 am

    Rome : gimme bk my mule!
    Greece: come n get it.

  • Reply Justin Candler February 17, 2020 at 6:43 am

    Your content is great man. This is like the 5th video I’ve managed to watch & you have earned your well deserved sub and like from me. Keep the great content coming

  • Reply Marco Bergamaschi February 17, 2020 at 7:02 am

    "My mule don't like people stealin' "..

  • Reply quadcannon February 17, 2020 at 7:10 am

    1:30 for start of video

  • Reply Martin K February 17, 2020 at 7:15 am

    Lunar eclipse, not solar eclipse

  • Reply Sandouras February 17, 2020 at 7:47 am

    Ah, the old unguarded mountain pass, the bane of the greeks.

  • Reply Sandouras February 17, 2020 at 7:56 am

    I dont get it. Why cant the rear of the Phalanx who isnt enganged in the combat, just turn and form up to the rear? This is what the Tercios would do and there was no way a cavalry charge would ever hurt them, from any side.

  • Reply Boris Erdogan February 17, 2020 at 7:58 am

    Another great video, thank you for making my Monday afternoon awesome.

  • Reply philippekogler February 17, 2020 at 8:06 am

    (Translation: "Attack!")

    A Mule

  • Reply Usman Siddiq February 17, 2020 at 8:09 am

    I am with Greeks on this one Mule clearly deserted their army and tries to join Macedonian ranks.
    Mule have every right to his life and it was his decision to desert Roman's had no right to force him against his will.

  • Reply Spud doe February 17, 2020 at 8:10 am

    Never underestimate a mule on the battlefield.

  • Reply gildas wantier February 17, 2020 at 8:10 am

    What happened to that mule in the end? Lol

  • Reply Illyrian Highlights February 17, 2020 at 8:13 am


  • Reply huntclan hunt February 17, 2020 at 8:26 am

    I know this is a funny little thing, but thanks for using AD and BC instead of CE and BCE. I thought I'd just say thank you.
    Also, great video! Love your work!

  • Reply gotama420 February 17, 2020 at 8:27 am

    if it happened at night it would be a lunar eclipse

  • Reply Berjast Kjuklingur February 17, 2020 at 8:37 am

    I dare say that that mule deserved a triumph of it's own and statues erected in its honor.

  • Reply Ryan Pedro February 17, 2020 at 8:39 am

    The moon turned as red and the blood of Rome!

  • Reply Vjeran Amidzic February 17, 2020 at 9:08 am

    The sarissa phalanx is unbeatable head on, Alexander always had the silver shields protecting the vulnerable flanks, perseus f'd up sending them in like this

  • Reply Miguel Montenegro February 17, 2020 at 10:02 am

    Am I the only that wished Alexander's son had became king?

  • Reply bat man February 17, 2020 at 10:04 am

    Imagine if they used the 3D engine to actually simulate the battle as it happened… :O

  • Reply Shura February 17, 2020 at 10:18 am

    Ahh classic AoE reasons for going to war: Those guys are taking our sheep!

  • Reply ofi123 February 17, 2020 at 10:47 am

    13:25 In subtitle "Finally, Perseus followed them in chains, still sobbing." wasn't spoken at all. Was that line missed out, removed from narration, or someone added that extra line into the subtitle?

  • Reply Derna1804 February 17, 2020 at 10:58 am

    The Macedonians suffered -1 Stability.

  • Reply Tovarishch Simonov February 17, 2020 at 11:17 am

    Romans actually use elephants

  • Reply Jayperion X February 17, 2020 at 11:30 am

    Romans losing eagle standart:

    I‘m gonna end this man’s carreer.

  • Reply Khurmiful February 17, 2020 at 12:22 pm

    If only the vanquished had a decent cavalry, I suspect the battle would have been bloodier but the result would have been the same.

  • Reply TITUS MANLIUS February 17, 2020 at 12:35 pm

    What would Alexander have done?

  • Reply Mantas Ramanauskas February 17, 2020 at 12:47 pm

    So what happened to Perseus? Was he killed afterwards? Sold to slavery? Set free?

  • Reply Bas van der Horst February 17, 2020 at 12:53 pm

    Roma invicta! Great video guys keep it up 😀

  • Reply Bung IFAL February 17, 2020 at 1:12 pm

    The dawn of roman

  • Reply Chubbyninja89 Irish Ninja February 17, 2020 at 1:30 pm

    Where's the Third Servile Revolt video about Spartacus's massive slave revolt?

  • Reply chronoss chiron February 17, 2020 at 1:48 pm


  • Reply chronoss chiron February 17, 2020 at 1:49 pm

    adlib over 1 minute ads on a 14 minute video you lose my sub now

  • Reply maffeJS February 17, 2020 at 1:54 pm

    Served the Macedonians right for trying to lame the mule in early game

  • Reply tier1solutions28 February 17, 2020 at 1:55 pm

    Where's Alexander when you need him? That was very winnable…..

  • Reply Scarface92511 February 17, 2020 at 1:59 pm

    Stupid for the phalanx to cross the river, they should of stayed where they were, ideal flat ground suitable for the phalanx,.

  • Reply Jose Chagwene Alberto Cuvelo February 17, 2020 at 2:05 pm

    While the Mule probably just got away, ehehehe that made my day

  • Reply Harald Abd-Al Rahman February 17, 2020 at 2:06 pm

    12:59 and 13:39 – Loved the words.

    Love you, Rome.

  • Reply OmegaTrooper February 17, 2020 at 2:28 pm

    6:50 – should be a Lunar Eclipse, not solar.

  • Reply كنق الجفر February 17, 2020 at 2:33 pm

    نريد ابترجمه العربيه

  • Reply Neenjapork February 17, 2020 at 2:35 pm

    Phil moore and i?

  • Reply Lado Saluqvadze February 17, 2020 at 2:35 pm

    Please make another video about 1121 battle of didgori, between Georgian kingdom and coalition of muslims!

  • Reply Mikey Cost February 17, 2020 at 2:50 pm

    Did you guys change your thumbnail?

  • Reply Anubis D February 17, 2020 at 3:04 pm

    Damn…. That mule it's very valuable
    – Macedonians : he deserted!
    -Romans: We deserve him
    – The mule: ops…. slowly walking away

  • Reply Stelios Tsimplis February 17, 2020 at 3:27 pm

    I remember reading, from multiple sources, that Perseus and his companions never got into the fight and that he didn't want to leave his position because he had the upper hand there. Strange how history sources differ sometimes.

  • Reply Perret Laurent February 17, 2020 at 3:43 pm

    Rome against hellenistic kingdoms. The victory of the éléphants.

  • Reply Kushal Thapa February 17, 2020 at 3:46 pm

    Are you sure it was a solar eclipse?

  • Reply Vee Cee February 17, 2020 at 4:22 pm

    Macedonians didn’t exist until 1995.

  • Reply Theban Traveller February 17, 2020 at 4:49 pm

    The last Macedonian video i suppose ? Soooo this means its Seleucids VS Egypt time in the Levant 😀 ??? ( he asked hopefully)

  • Reply ச.வேலவன் ச.வேலவன் February 17, 2020 at 5:00 pm

    Can you make a video about thamizh kings the great chera chola Pandyas.Their trade foreign policy and wars

  • Reply RiderofRiddermark February 17, 2020 at 6:30 pm

    That one time elephants are actually useful in a battle.

  • Reply taniths 1st and only sgt iron on duty February 17, 2020 at 6:51 pm

    ''hey thats my mule!''
    ''no its mine!''
    ''no its mine!''
    mule runs away

  • Reply DarkZtorm February 17, 2020 at 7:29 pm

    Once more, what seems like an securedvictory for the macedonians ends in defeat. Incredible really.

  • Reply gennehring1 February 17, 2020 at 7:42 pm

    Not the first time a jackass started a fight and dam sure not the last time either….

  • Reply Marinus von Zilio February 17, 2020 at 7:42 pm

    Interestingly, Perseus' captivity after he was brought to Italy was not all that bad. He took up a craft, metalworking to be precise, and was reportedly quite good at it. He also learned Latin and even got a position as a public notary.

  • Reply Cpt Slow February 17, 2020 at 7:52 pm


  • Reply Shawn Wright&theTribe February 17, 2020 at 8:39 pm

    Except Alexander's phalanx was not over. A thousand or so years latter, the swiss pikemen took a page out of the old greek book.

  • Reply Kortik February 17, 2020 at 9:02 pm

    3:28 is that Cannabis at the feet of horsemen?

  • Reply Miho Raboteg February 17, 2020 at 9:26 pm

    Men fight over women, money, teritory, glory…and mules

  • Reply freethinker1 February 17, 2020 at 9:56 pm

    "They shall take our lives but they shall never take our mule."

  • Reply Marcie Willis February 17, 2020 at 9:59 pm

    Enjoyed. Thank you.

  • Reply A Hardstyle Lamb February 17, 2020 at 10:17 pm

    Beat the Legions at Callinicus.

    Laughs in Manpower.

  • Reply Trofrom February 17, 2020 at 11:55 pm

    The mule: Im about to end all these mens lives.

  • Reply Zothanmawia Pachuau February 18, 2020 at 12:03 am

    I've read a lot about the battle of Pydna, but I've never heard of that mule before.

  • Reply andrew batist February 18, 2020 at 12:28 am

    8:08 look guys the mule is running away lets get it.. dont engage. i mean look, i mean, the mule… nevermind.

  • Reply andrew batist February 18, 2020 at 12:42 am

    episodes about korea would be great

  • Reply andrew batist February 18, 2020 at 12:45 am

    if this was PBS digital studios the title would be " The day when a Mule ended the Phalanx "

  • Reply LambofJudah8 February 18, 2020 at 1:09 am

    What mods do they use on Rome 2?

  • Reply Philip macedon February 18, 2020 at 1:40 am

    'So, it was made Greek by a population exchange and through all the difficult events we and the other peoples from the region went through. So who are we kidding when we say “Macedonia is one and it is Greek?” Only ourselves,' Filis said during the heated debate on the ratification of the deal to rename the Republic of Macedonia.

  • Reply Philip macedon February 18, 2020 at 1:40 am

    There are several Macedonias. The other Macedonia is defined with the Bucharest treaty which bears our, Greek signature. When we hear the chant “Macedonia is one and it is Greek” it is seen as irredentism, as disrespect for the international treaties by our country.' 'Maybe it doesn’t sound too good but it is the truth. Greek Macedonia is Greek, and let me clarify, it was made Greek, because until 1912/1913 and 1921/1922, when the refugees came, there was no Greek majority in Macedonia – only in some regions in the south.'nikos filis Greek mp

  • Reply ShogunBean February 18, 2020 at 2:25 am

    The Phalanx attacked to soon it's that simple if they had let the Romans come down off the hill it might have been different.

  • Reply Ilirjan Azari February 18, 2020 at 2:32 am

    Pirro, aleksander, skanderbeg one blood one language. Albanian heroes have existed since history and they always will

  • Reply Águila701 February 18, 2020 at 2:37 am

    All things must come to an end.

  • Reply ESPADA February 18, 2020 at 2:43 am

    That was a smart mule. I'll be over here while you guys settled your quarrel

  • Reply Darth Revan February 18, 2020 at 3:15 am

    Mule: I hate humans. They made me a slave to carry their water… Well I'm going to make them kill each other. MUAHAHAHAHA!

  • Reply MadjaX February 18, 2020 at 3:30 am

    The mule was literally Leroy Jenkins.

  • Reply M E February 18, 2020 at 3:55 am

    Lunar Eclipse.

  • Reply Valorous OrDie February 18, 2020 at 4:03 am

    Roman etruscan war video.

  • Reply Karlz Batiao February 18, 2020 at 4:10 am

    that mule though…

  • Reply Grape Ape February 18, 2020 at 5:33 am

    My mule don't like you laughin'

  • Reply paulgilpin February 18, 2020 at 8:05 am

    why did the romans name their returning general "macadonius"?
    would "jackassious" be more appropriate?

  • Reply Hyper Voreian February 18, 2020 at 9:53 am

    Most roman victories over greeks were decided by luck and use of allied troops. In this case ,elephants.

    Greeks could have won if a little more lucky. At Fourth macedonian war ,Andriscus will win two victories in straight up battles against the romans ,in the latter kiling and its commander. At final battle he will do the same mistake as a lot of greeks did: understimate the romans. And he will be defeated.

    Romans used a lot of diplomacy to keep the greek states divided or occupied ,so in every time was not a clash between a united greek power and rome ,but a clash between an isolated greek state versus rome and its greek allies.

    In the Spartan-Roman war of 197 bc the Spartans mobilized 20k men while the Romans around 50k. Of which more than half were allied greeks. And so on.

    Greece was ravaged by constant civil war for around 300 years , its northen areas like Macedon ,Mollosia and Chaonia fighting Illyrians and Thracians all the time. Sicilian greeks were exhausted by constant war with the carthagenians. Simply put there was not a force to unify greece. Most of the ablest men had left to serve in the succesor armies states and great masses of population migrated to Bactria. Greek military system was not inferior to the Romans ,but the latter had better generals and numerical superiority.
    Last but not least while the pike phallanx was perfectly able to win over a roman legion , the weakening of support troops structure was fatal and dint not alolowed for mistakes to be made. Pike phalanx was not the single formation in the past but supported by heavy troops (hoplites, hypaspsists) ,light troops and light and heavy cavalry. In time of greek roman wars , greeks were over relied to it.

    But pike phalanx contrary to many was not decided out of choise and was not meant to take on heavy infantry by itself. Rather to pin and engage the enemy heavy infantry while the superior macedonian cavalry forces would give the decisive blow.
    When the cavalry forces were absent ,the enemy heavy infantry could and did penetrate and won over pike phlanxes.
    In third sacred war , in Issos ,in Lamian war , and so on.

    Greek commanders slowly recognized that and experimented with other type of troops as Thorakitai , theyreoforoi (the imitation legionnaires some mentioned ) and perhaps again with hoplites ( as many depictions from that period depict large hoplon type carrying troops and the Apameia treaty term to Seleukos " it is forbidden to emply hoplites from greece).

    To sum it up , IMO romans barely won over a fragmented greece , and facing a military system not well implemented.

    A properly supported and organized greek army with supprt troops was perfectly able to win roman legions is set up battles.

  • Reply The Hunter x Hunter 2011 Dickriding Association February 18, 2020 at 11:40 am

    Amazing so much of this battle came down to dumb luck

  • Reply e1123581321345589144 February 18, 2020 at 12:02 pm

    6:10 That's a lunar eclipse, not a solar eclipse.

  • Reply Danijel Kenda February 18, 2020 at 1:49 pm

    Macedonians were not Greek! Just read Herodot, Plini, Ptolomei, Plutarh, Demosten they all wrote that Macedonians and Fillip2 & Alexander the Great were NOT GREEK THEY WERE VARVAR or
    Serbian tribes: Macedonians, Illyrians, Rashans/Trachans, Tribals, Dardanians, Dachians.
    The macedonian language was Serbian/Slavic. For the tittle of a general they used the word ČELNIK – leader. (serb. Čelo-forhead). How long will this idiotic lie still be around???

  • Reply RK Global Edition February 18, 2020 at 2:29 pm

    Make video on The great Maratha Empire in india who defeated Mughals and British in India

  • Reply Alex Slater February 18, 2020 at 3:15 pm


  • Reply Rob L February 18, 2020 at 3:21 pm

    Never heard about this battle, but damn is it the most interesting thing. This is what I love about this channel, revealing jewels from the past that are worth remembering, but are unfortunately forgotten.

  • Reply R3GARnator February 18, 2020 at 3:28 pm

    It looks like the real problem, was the Macedonians kept their cavalry in reserve instead of deploying them.

  • Reply S C February 18, 2020 at 3:32 pm

    Phalanx: rules the battlefields of post-Alexander asia minor and greece
    Mule: I'm gonna have the roman legions end this man's whole carreer

  • Reply Diti February 18, 2020 at 4:04 pm

    Do an episode about kosovo war 1998-1999

  • Reply தென்னவன் South Tamilan February 18, 2020 at 4:08 pm


  • Reply Abhiii Mauryaa February 18, 2020 at 4:29 pm

    You must make video on "The Battle of Ten King"…

  • Reply yakup demir February 18, 2020 at 4:30 pm

    He wouldn't have stopped the rome war machine if he was in alexander

  • Reply Aleksandar Trajkoski February 18, 2020 at 7:01 pm

    Macedonia timeless 🇲🇰🇲🇰🇲🇰

  • Reply υlтяα ιηsтιηcт υткαяsн February 18, 2020 at 7:19 pm

    Star of Bethlehem which was seen during the birth of Jesus of Nazareth was actually Jupiter-Venus conjunction. One being the largest planet other being the brightest of solar system made it look like one.

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