Articles, Blog

How Bacteria Rule Over Your Body – The Microbiome

August 19, 2019


Microbes are everywhere, on your phone, in your water bottle, on your hands before you wash them, on your hands after you wash them, and literally everywhere else on top of you too. Microbes are omnipresent at any moment,
and there is nothing we can do about it So, millions of years ago we made a pact, we give them shelter and food, and in turn they work for us. But the more we learn about this partnership,
the more it looks like a cold war Inside our mother’s womb,
humans start out sterile When we are born and traveling
through the birth canal, billions of our mother’s bacteria cover
every single part of our bodies. This is an essential part of human health. Children born via C-section have a
higher rate of asthma, immune diseases and even leukemia. So our bodies do not only accept the invasion
of microorganisms, they welcome it. Over millions of years, we co-evolved to
make the best of our relationship. Mother’s milk for example, contains special sugars that are
meant to feed and support certain groups of microbes, work as a decoy for others, and help to modulate the
immune system. It takes up to two years, until a healthy
microbe community has formed. Every human has their own unique microbiome,
made up of bacteria, viruses, fungi and other organisms. We have three categories of guests,
on and in our bodies. One: Quiet passengers that do their own thing,
and are politely ignored. By being there, they take up space and keep
more aggressive intruders in check. Two: Guests that harm us, But with whom we’ve learned to live, for example, bacteria that literally create
acid that melts our teeth, if we don’t brush enough. They want to take up as much
space as they can, and we don’t want them to. But, we can’t get rid of them entirely. Three: Friendly fellows that our bodies
want to have around, most of them are a community of
380,000 billion bacteria, from up to 5,000 different species,
that live in our gut. These gut microorganisms help us digest food, and pull additional calories from things
that we can’t digest ourselves. Unfortunately, our gut is also the
perfect point of attack for intruders, so it’s guarded by an aggressive army, our immune system. To survive here, our microbiome
co-evolved with us to be able to communicate
with our body. The most important part of that is to ask
the immune system to not kill them. But, they also have a real motivation
to keep our gut healthy, so some of them produce a
messenger substances, that help to educate the immune system, and others stimulate the gut cells
to regenerate faster. But, over the last few years. Evidence has emerged that the
influence of our gut microbiome, goes much much further. It might even talk directly to our brain. We’ve observed a few curious things, 90% of our body’s serotonin, an important messenger substance
for nerve cells, is produced in the gut. Some scientists think the
microbiome does this, to communicate with the vagus nerve. The information highway of our nervous system. Other examples are bacteria that
stimulate immune cells in the gut, so they send a kind of alarm
signal to the brain. Here, it activates immune cells that help
the brain recover from injuries. Since the brain decides what we eat, the microbiome is interested
in a healthy brain. A new field of science is
opening up here, and we’re just on the verge of
understanding how these complex systems inside our bodies interact. But we are starting to see how
much our microbiome actually influences us and our behavior. Take depression for example, Healthy rats fed microbes from the
guts of depressed people, began showing anxiety-like behavior, and symptoms that look like depression. And in early 2017, a study linked the
microbiome to intelligence, by connecting a certain set up
of bacteria in newborns, with better motor and language skills. But it might also influence our daily lives. Tests with fruit flies, showed that their microbiome, influenced
what kinds of food they craved. This could mean your microbes are
able to tell your brain, which food it should get them. Although, this is not a one-way street The seed for our microbiome
comes from our mother, but how it develops and changes, is
determined by what we eat. the organisms in our gut feed
on different things, some like fibers and leafy greens, others go for sugars and starches, and some love greasy fries and butter. Our gut is like a garden in which
we constantly decide, what will grow and blossom. If we eat healthily, we breed bacteria
that like healthy food. If we eat a lot of fast food, then we
breed fast food loving bacteria. Life is hard, so we can get trapped
in a vicious circle. You have a stressful time, and eat lots
of burgers and fries and pizza. This is awesome for fast food bacteria, they multiply and multiply, and take up space
from vegetable loving bacteria. But even worse, they send signals to the
brain to continue what it’s doing. this makes you want more
fast food. Which breeds more fast
food bacteria, which makes you crave fast food,
and so on. This kind of self-reinforcing cycle, could play a huge role in obesity. But, it’s important to stress that you
can fight this process, and reverse it, by eating healthily and
breeding more good bacteria. Beyond weight gain, our microbiome
has also been linked to other serious diseases like autism, schizophrenia, and cancer. One of the earliest symptoms of Parkinson’s,
is actually gut problems. If your body is overrun with
bacteria that harm you, there is often only one solution. You bring in an army of good guys. That’s very easy, You just transplant some healthy poop. You do that by literally transferring poop,
from a healthy person, into your gut. This method is already used,
to cure diarrhea that’s caused when C. difficile bacteria,
take over a gut microbiome. But we just don’t know enough about
the complex interplay at work here yet. For example, a transplant from an overweight
donor cured a woman’s diarrhea, but contributed to her obesity down the line. This caused some ways and another
study tried to reverse the effect. Poop transplants from slim people
to obese ones, gave them a more diverse microbiome, and made them less sensitive to insulin. Both things that also happen when
people lose weight We need to do a lot more science,
to really understand how our microbes make us
healthy or sick. But, whether we like it or not. We need our microbiome, and it needs us. We’ll never have our bodies to ourselves. But we have gained a powerful ally, if we can just keep the peace.

100 Comments

  • Reply Kurzgesagt – In a Nutshell February 8, 2019 at 1:59 pm

    There's brand new stuff in the Kurzgesagt Merch Shop. Check it out here: shop.kurzgesagt.org

  • Reply OfficerBanjo July 28, 2019 at 4:07 pm

    cure fatness by putting skinny people poop into fat people

  • Reply Xtreme TM July 28, 2019 at 7:19 pm

    "Inside our mothers womb" looks at mother

  • Reply Michael Johnston July 28, 2019 at 10:36 pm

    "Diseases like Autism" one of the most uneducated statements I have heard in a while. Autism is NOT a disease ffs. It is a developmental disorder. Do your research before making such false and ridiculous claims !

  • Reply Stephanie Halim July 29, 2019 at 6:57 am

    27:35 LEMONs

  • Reply Master Gamer873 July 29, 2019 at 6:30 pm

    This gives the saying “the way to a man’s heart is through his stomach” a whole new meaning. Though in this case it’s more their brain.

  • Reply iTz0nyx July 30, 2019 at 1:36 am

    So that's why I prolly have asthma?

  • Reply Timur the_Hacker July 30, 2019 at 12:02 pm

    i was born in space!
    JK of course not

  • Reply the lamb sauce July 30, 2019 at 12:16 pm

    Theres something ive been wondering can our own imune system attack our own seels on acident or on purpose if on purpose is it pecus the sell has bacteria in it(i already know it attacks our organs and blood cells that arnt the same type)and if on acident then i got nothing?????

  • Reply Albert Einstein July 30, 2019 at 7:10 pm

    This can a wonderfull project !

  • Reply Neal Thomson July 30, 2019 at 7:22 pm

    I want to hear more about how the bugs communicate with my body. . .

    TGC 🙂
    Blessings in abundance

  • Reply Edan Lian July 30, 2019 at 9:51 pm

    4:54
    Narrator: "And some like greasy fries in butter."
    French fries: Is covered in jelly
    Do I really need to say more?

  • Reply Cheeseburger Monkey July 31, 2019 at 12:25 am

    so bacteria control you?

  • Reply Gaming With Raiq July 31, 2019 at 1:42 am

    When a police officer says pick up my dogs poop I’ll just say it’s my dogs bacteria’s poop.

  • Reply Noah Williams July 31, 2019 at 5:30 am

    I never knew that gut bacteria were so important, but it makes sense when you think about it.

    Millions of years of symbiotic relationship can create tons of new species that diverge from the existing ones, and it's only a matter of time before they integrate into everything else.

    They probably originally got there just from being on some food so every animal species probably has one.

  • Reply Noah Williams July 31, 2019 at 5:38 am

    Now I'm curious. My curious bacteria are hungry for knowledge.

  • Reply no u July 31, 2019 at 9:19 am

    Want A sprite cranberry?

  • Reply A random unvaccinated alien July 31, 2019 at 11:14 am

    Hmm thats why i became a weeb when i ate a burger who was licked by a naruto runner in macdonalds

  • Reply Name Unavailable July 31, 2019 at 2:49 pm

    It’s kinda like what animals are for the earth

    And then humans(cancer) came around and threw everything thing off

  • Reply Vocal August 1, 2019 at 8:16 am

    gets to the poop transplant part you want me to put what in my gut?

  • Reply Jon Harris August 1, 2019 at 8:17 am

    Purely because of this video I'm taking a break from sugar for a week.

    This video indicates that cravings get easier when you don't give in to them!

  • Reply ThatGuyThatGames August 1, 2019 at 10:22 am

    doctors hate him, using this small trick he lost 24 pounds in a week. <<click here to see how>>

  • Reply teeber moon August 2, 2019 at 12:38 am

    I understand what they meant to say but the term “disease” for autism is incorrect as it’s a neurological disorder not a disease.

  • Reply Paul Schoenmann August 2, 2019 at 1:16 am

    Did you just say "the brain decides [what we] eat?" You're kidding right?? 😂😂🤣🤣

  • Reply ronan vd merwe August 2, 2019 at 7:41 am

    no body else's crap is going in to my ass

  • Reply Bill York August 2, 2019 at 7:42 am

    "In a nutshell" cool is there memes (until it starts) oh

  • Reply TheEvilFlyingToaster August 2, 2019 at 3:07 pm

    "Healthy rats fed microbes from the guts of depressed people showed anxiety like behavior and symptoms of depression" Lol, i'd be depressed and anxious too if someone fed me gut microbes.

  • Reply Patricia Romero August 3, 2019 at 3:10 am

    The bacteria look so cute

  • Reply luNartic __ August 3, 2019 at 8:05 am

    T H E G U T

  • Reply YOUR FUTURE BOYFRIEND FRUCK YOU August 3, 2019 at 1:41 pm

    So microbes makes life either dangerouse or nice from how you decide to eat or almost anything

  • Reply 末永甲行 August 3, 2019 at 7:40 pm

    結局はバランスが大事という事。

  • Reply Pootato Productions August 4, 2019 at 3:20 am

    Microbes more like Microorgasms -James

  • Reply IAmSeamonkey August 4, 2019 at 6:15 am

    another thing that proves that the microbiome is a cold war:
    about 2 days after we die, the microbiome turns on us and begins to eat us. this contributes SIGNIFICANTLY to decomposition

  • Reply Mars People August 4, 2019 at 6:46 am

    I am still Rule about 99,9% of my body

  • Reply Not, Tyrion August 4, 2019 at 12:09 pm

    Hi

  • Reply Joseph Stalin triggered August 4, 2019 at 1:30 pm

    I have asma

  • Reply •Ohh Dear• August 4, 2019 at 6:39 pm

    I wish I could be that comment that gets 1k likes because they thought of something genius.

  • Reply anti bully August 4, 2019 at 8:14 pm

    you know what they say, all toasters toast toast

  • Reply EuroFlight 38 August 6, 2019 at 1:09 am

    Eses??!! (Its heces!!) Who the hll translates subtitles to spanish?

  • Reply The Holy Roman August 6, 2019 at 10:53 pm

    The birthing animation gave me nightmares

  • Reply Snake August 7, 2019 at 12:49 am

    Theres geopolitics inside our bodies.

  • Reply Even Berg August 7, 2019 at 12:39 pm

    So, does this mean that if you stop eating, your bacterias stops craving food in all , and your intestines stops working.

  • Reply Leonardo Loera August 8, 2019 at 1:16 am

    People can literally change emotions,health and body shape just by getting shit pushed into their but lol

  • Reply Captain Hat August 8, 2019 at 3:40 am

    Is it just me or does this sound a lot like Venom from Spiderman

  • Reply Cheeseburger Monkey August 8, 2019 at 7:40 pm

    person poops
    person puts it in another person
    person 2: wait what just happened

  • Reply Enache Andrei August 8, 2019 at 9:48 pm

    I am alone, i have depression and i crave a girlfriend. What type of microbiome do I have ??

  • Reply Burn Angel August 9, 2019 at 3:13 am

    So, babies get their gut flora from their mothers, yes.
    But you don't want to know how that happens, believe me…

  • Reply Andy Hutchings August 9, 2019 at 6:14 am

    So this is why my gut hurt so much when I got school anxiety from being bullied and I felt better when I relaxed playing video games, like fallout 4 and helping Sheffield get a home in my settlement and that nuka cola he needed

  • Reply Ahmad Mabruri August 9, 2019 at 11:54 am

    Maybe next year somebody would sell his poop for 150$/kg..

  • Reply Javieras August 9, 2019 at 10:12 pm

    Do you know what it would be fun that you put on the description your dialog to be easier to study plisss 😇🙏

  • Reply Enceladus saturn's son August 9, 2019 at 11:23 pm

    AAAAAAAA MY SMARTPHONE *throws it away*

  • Reply chrys miaou August 10, 2019 at 10:33 am

    is not in french 🙁

  • Reply Psycho - san August 10, 2019 at 11:39 am

    A complex and diverse system in our stomachs…. And it's called "gut science"

  • Reply Will Middleton August 10, 2019 at 11:48 pm

    Thay are so cuuuzuuuiiuiiiiirhrgurtttttttt

  • Reply Will Middleton August 10, 2019 at 11:50 pm

    2:36 hello I am here to hel…squish

  • Reply xandercorp August 11, 2019 at 7:56 am

    No mention of opportunistic microorganisms that are normally fine until we get immuno-suppressed?

  • Reply Morimoto August 11, 2019 at 3:22 pm

    U mean I wasn't myself entirely?

  • Reply Morimoto August 11, 2019 at 3:24 pm

    No wonder back in the days that people think they think from the gut.

  • Reply Gaige Gamer August 11, 2019 at 10:43 pm

    Can viruses attack viruses

  • Reply Deep state Agent August 12, 2019 at 12:11 am

    So it’s not my fault i’m dumb?

  • Reply Niyeru August 12, 2019 at 3:45 am

    So you are what you eat, literally?

  • Reply Ashwin Nair August 12, 2019 at 10:34 am

    So some people literally shove shit up their own ass

  • Reply ThaC00l Kid August 12, 2019 at 11:21 pm

    C R A P T R A N S P L A N T

  • Reply huxley stratton August 13, 2019 at 4:01 am

    Autism isn't a hardware not software

  • Reply cassandra5322 August 13, 2019 at 6:47 am

    Someone please give me their slim smart and happy shit please.

  • Reply CrazySexyDutchYessss August 13, 2019 at 12:58 pm

    Small correction needed: Autism is not a disease (5:59 into the video). But nice video as always!

  • Reply h3h2h1 h4h2h1 August 13, 2019 at 5:59 pm

    CRISPR Is Just The Perfect Tool For Modifying Humans For Need

  • Reply Piotr Trzpil August 13, 2019 at 7:30 pm

    very cool vide 😉

  • Reply xandercorp August 14, 2019 at 1:34 am

    Kurzgesagt, when did you stop linking in the description the academic sources for the facts found in your video?

  • Reply Aleksandar Trifunovic August 14, 2019 at 8:55 am

    So instead of slicing up and preserving Albert Einstein’s brain, we should have gone for his gut?

    Perhaps some day, instead of having adds for “fragrance of Antonio Banderas” we’ll have “probiotic of Einstein” xD

  • Reply ENDERGAMER lol August 14, 2019 at 12:30 pm

    Life fucking blows xD

  • Reply Jalnaa Jalnaa August 14, 2019 at 1:54 pm

    thats how adicshon worcks

  • Reply Orven Apuyan August 14, 2019 at 2:08 pm

    1:04
    Now i know why i have asthma for years
    Tbh it kinda suck when you have months of no sweets and anything cold like drinks

  • Reply Orven Apuyan August 14, 2019 at 2:12 pm

    My gut want anything random

  • Reply Fluffy Avalanche August 15, 2019 at 12:07 am

    They are kinda cute :/

  • Reply Jordan Foster August 15, 2019 at 3:47 pm

    Time to refuse what they want

  • Reply _Paws_ August 15, 2019 at 9:02 pm

    Is this part of the Minecraft update?

  • Reply _Paws_ August 15, 2019 at 9:08 pm

    5:30 So, it's "you eat what you are", it's almost like the reverse.

  • Reply Dylan L. August 16, 2019 at 1:56 am

    My coffee microbiome rules over all

  • Reply Menos The Name August 16, 2019 at 7:01 am

    5:48 What the balanced poop!
    Those fatty microbes are as much 'healthy food' as the fibre ones etc.
    I'd guess that the scale is probably like balancing a plate, with a balance of our microbes on every part of the plate.
    We shouldn't think 'fight the unbalance'. A war is necessary to keep a war going. We should help to balance the unbalance. Probably better to eat a lot AND different, than to just eat less of what's to much (or the war will result in an empty plate).

    Try learning about ayurveda! That seems to care about our bodily balance.
    It would be a plus for me if you taught about what you found out as well, I'd guess. You make very good videos! <3

  • Reply One Punch Taco August 16, 2019 at 1:01 pm

    so there are bacteria that love alcohol in an alcoholic guts

  • Reply Plasma Prime667 August 17, 2019 at 1:38 am

    Did he say… Transfer poop? shiver

  • Reply F You Series August 17, 2019 at 11:00 am

    1:17 oh my..thats called colostrum dud

  • Reply *** GENERAL *** August 17, 2019 at 2:46 pm

    donates a poop urgentlyyyy

  • Reply Jules August 17, 2019 at 4:29 pm

    can someone… uh…. donate some of their feces to me? XD

  • Reply KeRen Tan August 17, 2019 at 6:36 pm

    anybody feel bad for those rats?

  • Reply DarkSomber August 18, 2019 at 6:07 am

    This stuff keeps me from thinking of reality and the universe

  • Reply Khyrid August 18, 2019 at 7:52 am

    Does anybody have any good poop I can borrow to stuff up my butt?

  • Reply Elijah Grant August 18, 2019 at 10:25 am

    Damm it in going to doc 😷😷

  • Reply Crystal Eakins August 18, 2019 at 2:44 pm

    This explains why aliens are always probing

  • Reply Max McMullen August 18, 2019 at 5:06 pm

    So it ain't my fault that I'm addicted to junk food, the goddamn microbs in my gut are forcing me to do so

  • Reply James Matskogv August 18, 2019 at 5:36 pm

    HEY!*!*!*! Kurzgesagt never gave a shout out to the Porn-loving bacteria, the ones that live in your balls

  • Reply Its115 August 18, 2019 at 5:53 pm

    Wow

  • Reply America August 18, 2019 at 10:04 pm

    when u realize you can poop money

  • Reply ClockMan August 19, 2019 at 7:04 am

    NO
    WHY
    I DONT WANT SOMEBODY'S SHIT SHOVED UP MY ARSE

  • Reply Erl Bruce August 19, 2019 at 11:27 am

    Only Phages can kill them all whahaha

  • Reply Seruling Rumput August 19, 2019 at 12:35 pm

    You transplant what?

  • Reply Luigi XIV August 19, 2019 at 2:39 pm

    5:55 your koffing is evolving!

  • Reply Apoapsis Periapsis August 19, 2019 at 6:48 pm

    They should add this into Minecraft

  • Reply USCGNJ GT August 19, 2019 at 9:40 pm

    So when we keep eating healthy food we will eventually like it because all the microbes are telling us to get it.

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