Articles, Blog

How Aspirin Changed Medicine Forever

March 10, 2020


♪ Aspirin might seem like the most generic,
boring pill ever. I mean, the patent for it expired literally
a hundred years ago. And we have all kinds of better over-the-counter
painkillers these days. But behind those tiny, cheap, plain-looking
pills is a story that changed medicine forever. Because aspirin isn’t just an old pill. It was the one of the first pills — or at
least, one of the first medicines we learned how to make ourselves. And we’re still discovering new uses for it
today. So, the active ingredient in aspirin is a
compound called acetylsalicylic acid. But more than 3,000 years before we learned how to make it, doctors were using its original natural source, willow bark, as a medicine. Ancient Egyptians used willow and myrtle to treat fever and pain, some of the same symptoms we use modern-day aspirin for. And old school medical superstars like Hippocrates, Celsus, and Galen had come across the soothing effects of willow bark for treating inflammation. But it wasn’t until the 1700s that a British
reverend named Edward Stone made a crucial observation. During a particularly nasty outbreak of ague, a fever thought to be caused by malaria, Stone noticed that willow bark tasted an awful lot like Peruvian bark, the more common ague treatment of the time. Peruvian bark was good at relieving ague symptoms, but really expensive, and he thought willow might work as a cheaper alternative. So he spent the next few years collecting,
drying and powdering willow into a form that could be used to treat ague, eventually settling on a dosage of two scruples — which is a real unit of measure! It was about 2.5 grams of bark. His concoction wasn’t as powerful as Peruvian bark, which was a source of quinine a compound that actually kills the malaria parasite. But he did publish the first report of willow’s effects in a scientific journal, Philosophical Transactions. 35 years later, in 1826, a French researcher
isolated the active ingredient in willow bark: a yellowish crystal that was named salicin
a couple of years later. Around the same time, a much larger shift
was happening among scientists. For a long time, a lot of chemists thought
substances from living beings had some kind of vital force that made them different than non-living things an idea known as vitalism. A drop of human sweat would just be different than anything we could make in the lab. How? It just is! But in 1828, a German chemist named Friedrich Wohler showed otherwise when he synthesized urea, a substance found in both sweat and
urine — hence the name. This was the first time that someone made
an organic compound from inorganic materials in the lab. Wohler didn’t set out to disprove vitalism
— he was originally trying to make a totally different compound. But when he accidentally made urea instead, scientists began to think maybe living things weren’t so chemically different from non-living things. This event swung the doors wide open for experimentation into organic chemistry — the study of compounds usually found in living things. So for drugs like aspirin, the next few years
were one big progress party. In 1838, an Italian scientist named Raffaele
Piria synthesized a stronger form of the active ingredient in willow bark for the first time:
salicylic acid. This might not seem like that big of a deal,
especially compared to the neat and tidy synthesis in modern labs, but it marked an enormous
shift in our approach to drug development. Researchers weren’t just purifying what
they found in nature anymore they were actively working to change the chemical structure of compounds to develop more effective treatments. It’s one of the biggest differences between
old school and modern medicine. Salicylic acid might sound familiar if you’ve
used topical acne treatments, but it wasn’t quite modern-day aspirin yet. By 1876, a Scottish doctor had published a
positive review of salicylic acid’s effects on rheumatism in The Lancet, in a paper titled “Rheumatic Fever Treated by Salicylic Acid” It was no controlled, double blinded study
by any means, but the word was getting out that this stuff might turn into something
big. Except, there was a problem. Because that was only the first half of the
paper’s title. The second half was “Symptoms of Poisoning Produced by the Acid”. People weren’t actually being poisoned,
but it’s not hard to see why it looked like they were: salicylic acid worked for fever,
pain, and inflammation, but it also often caused gastritis, where the stomach lining becomes inflamed. Maybe a little bit ironic, considering the
medicine usually reduced inflammation, but it turns out the stomach lining doesn’t
really like being eroded, and that’s what the salicylic acid was doing. As you can probably imagine, this is not pleasant. It tends to lead to, like, nausea and vomiting. Meanwhile, something else was changing in the medical world. Researchers were starting to realize that
a lot of the chemical byproducts of dye manufacturing could be used in medicine. This is actually how some of the first pharmaceutical companies were born — they started out as dye manufacturers. The Bayer group in Germany was one of those dye companies that started branching out into medicine. And around the end of the nineteenth century, a couple of scientists at the Bayer group in Germany came up with a protocol to modify salicylic acid and make it less toxic. This is where the history of aspirin starts
to get a little controversial, because at least three different scientists all claimed
credit for the discovery. But either way, the process they came up with involved a reaction known as acetylation. It replaced one of salicylic acid’s hydroxyl
group — that’s an oxygen and hydrogen bonded to a carbon — with an acetyl group,
which is two carbons, one double-bonded to an oxygen and the other bonded to three hydrogens. The result was acetylsalicylic acid, the modern active ingredient in aspirin. The compound had technically been synthesized by a French chemist about 50 years earlier, but his version was impure and unstable. The reaction used by the chemists at Bayer
didn’t have those problems, and they ended up with a drug that reduced a lot of that
gastrointestinal irritation, at least compared to regular salicylic acid. Gastritis was still a side effect, but it
didn’t happen as often or as badly. And as far as industry was concerned, companies now had a reliable way to make a highly useful pill. It quickly became the world’s best selling
drug, in part because people were already used to taking salicylic compounds. This was just a safer and less toxic version. More positive medical reports kept coming
in, so aspirin continued to grow in popularity. And in 1915, it became available without a
prescription which made it the first synthetic, over the counter drug. This was about two years after Bayer stopped producing over-the-counter heroin, by the way, so for a while you could stroll into
any pharmacy and buy heroin but needed to get a prescription for aspirin. The times, they have changed. After aspirin became available over-the-counter, not much happened for a while. There were some legal changes when Bayer lost their trademark, which was part of Germany’s deal with the Allied powers after World War
I. But on the scientific side of things, there
wasn’t much progress for a few decades. Keep in mind that all this time, we really
had no idea how aspirin worked. We knew what it did, but not how. It took until around 1970 for British pharmacologist
Sir John Vane and his research team to figure that out. Their experiments involved inducing severe
allergic reactions in rabbit and guinea pig lungs, then studying both the chemicals produced during the allergic reaction and the effects of aspirin on those compounds. The team found that the allergic reactions
caused cells to produce more prostaglandins, a type of hormone. And aspirin seemed to inhibit that production. They were able to tie prostaglandins to fever, inflammation, and headaches, so this went a long way toward explaining how aspirin worked. A few years later, other scientists came across prostaglandins again. In 1976, researchers discovered cyclooxygenase, or the COX enzyme, which makes a few different biomarkers, including prostaglandins. And once you introduce it to aspirin, the
drug irreversibly binds to it. More COX binding, less prostaglandin, so less pain. The problem, though, is that there are multiple kinds of these enzymes, and they all do slightly different things. While COX-2 produces prostaglandins during inflammation, a COX-1 enzyme has the added duty of making prostaglandins to protect the lining of your stomach. And aspirin affects both COX-1 and COX- 2,
which is why it can act as a pain reliever, but also messes with the whole stomach lining thing. So doctors needed to find drugs that could
do the heavy lifting of aspirin, but without causing upset stomach. That’s where other NSAIDs, or non-steroidal anti-inflammatories, came in. As you might have guessed, their name comes from the fact that they reduce inflammation without being steroids. Pharmaceutical companies were after any drugs that would selectively inhibit COX-2 without touching COX-1. Acetaminophen seemed like a good alternative. We’d known about its pain-relief effects
for about a hundred years. But it’s not a proper NSAID. It reduces pain like one, but doesn’t do
anything for inflammation. Today, we have other actual NSAIDs, like ibuprofen, which can still irritate your stomach but seem to do it less than aspirin. Aspirin, though, is still extremely popular. That’s because, in addition to its pain
and fever reduction powers, it has benefits in preventing heart disease. It was a surgeon named Lawrence Craven — primarily an oral surgeon, oddly enough, not a cardiologist — who stumbled upon this idea in the early
1950s. Craven performed a lot of surgeries on tonsils and the adenoid glands, a pretty routine procedure by his standards. He’d usually do the surgery in the morning
and send the patient home in the afternoon, often prescribing aspirin chewing gum for
the pain. But he noticed that as the use of aspirin
gum increased, so did more oral bleeding. Craven was convinced that aspirin was preventing prothrombin, one of the factors in blood clotting. He even went as far as taking 12 aspirin a
day to give himself a nosebleed and show the blood thinning effects of the drug. Over the next few years, he prescribed aspirin to all of his patients who were at risk for a heart attack – mostly older, overweight men. His rationale was that rapid blood clotting
could cause in heart attacks in the arteries around the heart that experienced plaque buildup, or atherosclerosis. Craven thought aspirin would reduce coagulation, allowing blood to pass through the arteries smoothly, and reduce heart attacks. But really, all he had was anecdotal evidence and observations. Over the next few decades, multiple doctors and scientists would learn more about aspirin’s use as a blood thinner with much more rigorous science. And then, in the 1960s, researchers made a
game-changing discovery: aspirin had anti-platelet effects. Platelets are tiny cells in the blood that
help clots form, and aspirin acts as a blood thinner by keeping them from clumping together. That’s why they won’t let you donate platelets if you’ve taken aspirin in the last two days. So Craven’s speculation was actually pretty
close. Platelets bunch up around those atherosclerotic sites in blood vessels, causing heart attacks. Today, doctors will recommend low dose, daily aspirin for certain patients — it can reduce the chances of heart attacks in people who’ve already had a heart attack or stroke. And more recent research has shown that low doses of aspirin might help prevent other diseases, too — especially colorectal cancer. None of this means you, generic person, should start popping an extra pill with breakfast, unless your doctor tells you to. The risk of side effects isn’t generally
worth it, and we’re still learning more about which doses work and for whom. But one thing’s for sure: that old, boring,
little pill has come a long way since the early days of grinding up willow bark. Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow, which was brought to you by our patrons on Patreon! If you want to help us keep making episodes like this, just check out patreon.com/scishow. And if you’re as fascinated as I am by the
stories behind the science we have today, we have a whole, new History of Science series over at youtube.com/crashcourse. ♪

100 Comments

  • Reply Kyler Janovec January 29, 2019 at 10:43 am

    It was used by native Americans for years in willow bark tea

  • Reply kirby march barcena January 30, 2019 at 6:44 am

    At least we won't be chewing a willow tree bark just to relieve pain.

  • Reply Peter George January 31, 2019 at 5:25 pm

    Great video.

  • Reply onkar mane February 1, 2019 at 7:15 pm

    N Saids 😅😅😁😁 lolzzz

  • Reply Paul Brown February 6, 2019 at 2:49 am

    This one? Among the best SciSchow videos, EVER.

    And that's saying a lot.

  • Reply John Cran February 7, 2019 at 10:41 am

    I live with 1 aspirin a day after my MI in 2004.

  • Reply Yora February 11, 2019 at 12:52 pm

    Wasn't prussian blue used as a medicine?

  • Reply Stonemansteve II February 11, 2019 at 3:01 pm

    I still don't need a prescription to buy heroin, I have a guy, hmu!!

  • Reply CyrilleParis February 12, 2019 at 9:48 pm

    2:08 Pierre-Joseph Leroux

  • Reply White is Shiro February 17, 2019 at 8:36 am

    "Aspirin has anti-platelet effect"
    .
    .
    Platelet-chan: Anone anone ~.~

  • Reply Sergio Camba February 21, 2019 at 4:42 am

    Great video! You did talk about pharmaceuticals trying to find a cox-2 inhibitor but didn’t mention that they did. It’s called celecoxib.

  • Reply Dirty Wash February 22, 2019 at 7:53 am

    I'll give you some aspirin for 40 Shmeckles

  • Reply BA C February 23, 2019 at 5:15 am

    In some cases scientists were right, some molecules have 'handedness' or chirality, living organisms make some compounds with only one of the two possible mirror images of such molecules. Sometimes the unnatural handedness is toxic.

  • Reply Holeshot Hunter February 25, 2019 at 9:44 pm

    BAYER lost their trademark because they made the worst POISON GAS used in ww1.

  • Reply Boco Corwin March 5, 2019 at 7:51 pm

    I misread the title as "flavor" and thought "Geez they seriously have the worst flavor"

  • Reply Frank Andrew I March 8, 2019 at 9:58 pm

    To wonder why I love willow trees hmmm cathartic

  • Reply Frank Andrew I March 8, 2019 at 10:07 pm

    I’ll have a bottle of laudame you can keep the aspirin lol

  • Reply George Beauchamp March 12, 2019 at 1:21 am

    This has never happened while watching SchShow, but I am mildly insulted by being called "generic person". I know in a sort of objective, statistical sense that I am but thats not supposed to get said. WTH Hank?

  • Reply Ameya S March 12, 2019 at 12:50 pm

    Penicillin is so overrated…Aspirin should have gotten more glory in history!

  • Reply Annalee Guptar March 15, 2019 at 3:07 am

    So Peruvian bark cures Malaria?

  • Reply Dave Blane March 17, 2019 at 1:54 pm

    don't your ARMS get tired??

  • Reply KCNusach April 2, 2019 at 2:43 pm

    Most abused drug in America…

  • Reply Lilith Eden April 5, 2019 at 6:26 pm

    Laudanum, opium tincture, was available over the counter in the 19th and part of the 20th century. It was used as a sleep medicine and mothers used to put some on their baby’s pacifier in order to make them sleep. They must have had nice dreams and a full out addiction from childhood on… indeed times have changed.

  • Reply R M April 11, 2019 at 9:26 am

    I never expected to be in my mid 30’s, sitting up at 4:30am watching a video about Aspirin- and totally ok with it.. Lol

  • Reply Tina McLaughlin April 11, 2019 at 6:34 pm

    Wow! Germans in the bahr company sold Heroin, but needed a script for aspirin. Interesting!

  • Reply Sensi Star April 14, 2019 at 12:51 pm

    Is it weird I use aspirin for period blocks and menstrual pain?? Often my period blood is way too thick and blobby so it hurts me a lot while it just sits there, trying to force itself out. It helps SO much! For any of you ladies out there who have trouble passing thick period blood, a 200-300 mg dosage at the beginning of my periods, makes SO much difference. Mine is very severe, so you might not need as high of a dosage as I do. If you have blood clotting or over-bleeding issues, this might be more dangerous for you than helpful. But if you know you're medically okay, but viscous periods make you suffer, give it a try. It has actually changed that part of my life completely!

  • Reply Dakota Lee April 17, 2019 at 7:18 am

    I love you! 💚

  • Reply L Dewey April 24, 2019 at 3:50 pm

    Excellent presentation about aspirin!

  • Reply Mike Pellerin May 29, 2019 at 9:39 am

    I've used aspirin for over 50yrs. The only time I didn't use it was when I was going through chemo, and my Doctors suggested not using it so they could get good blood samples. They always suggest Tylenol. Really, Tylenol, that shit's poison!

  • Reply BobEckert56 June 15, 2019 at 6:11 am

    The whole therapeutic relationship between aspirin and cardiovascular health is now under fire due to bleeding and strokes. UPDATE THIS VIDEO!!!

  • Reply mervviscious July 15, 2019 at 7:13 am

    I'm having trouble getting my heroin refilled…

  • Reply gman76able August 2, 2019 at 11:49 pm

    I could add so much to this video!!!! i have studied aspirin for years. Since i worked on the Spanish flu. people didn't die of the flu but asprin overdose, Reyes syndrome.

  • Reply Blackopknight August 3, 2019 at 11:57 am

    I was taking it and other NSAIDs for nearly 50 years and it has never worked unless throwing up was the intended outcome. I did a dna test a couple of years ago and found out my body can not metabolize NSAIDs. I think the bad gene was r191 .

  • Reply A R August 6, 2019 at 4:01 am

    Best SciShow presenter… nothing against the others but this guy is the best

  • Reply Angelina Albano August 12, 2019 at 2:52 am

    Damn, crazy times indeed. I mean yeah, back then, you could buy heroin over the counter and they had actual cocaine in the coca cola. That's freaking insane. Thanks for making this video and sharing this information with us. It was pretty interesting and really crazy to learn about this stuff, so again, thank you. But then again, I always learn something new from watching your videos and I love that about your videos. I always walk away with new information that I never knew before and you guys do it in such an interesting way that keeps me coming back and wanting to learn more, so thank you for teaching me about these topics.

  • Reply Holly Rockwell-Celerier August 19, 2019 at 8:03 pm

    This was a particularly interesting episode. Thanks for sharing it.

  • Reply Marcel Venter August 28, 2019 at 3:09 am

    Aspirin works wonders for sore muscles

  • Reply Constant Chaos September 6, 2019 at 12:43 am

    I find myself rewatching these all the time

  • Reply Christian Czarnowsky September 10, 2019 at 8:55 pm

    Heh. He said COX

  • Reply Mary Anderson Dearing September 13, 2019 at 5:00 pm

    Hi @SciShow! This was a great segment. If you have the chance, I'd love to know more about other blood thinning agents. The manufactured ones, but also the plant Tulsi or "Holy Basil" taken as a tea. Thanks!

  • Reply kez kezooie September 16, 2019 at 10:27 am

    They used to use heroin in baby's cough medicine as it was safer than codeine. It's actually a very effective and relatively safe pain killer. The problem came with patients being given it and then having it stopped cold turkey instead of weaning them off it, which would leave people with an addiction problem.

    It's quite disgusting when you look at the problem with oxycodone and how that came about that many in the medical profession (who are more educated on addiction now) are often even more irresponsible today, considering the greater knowledge they have, regarding prescribing addictive medications to patients and then just leaving them hanging with a raging addiction.

  • Reply Kyra Smith September 17, 2019 at 7:54 pm

    Oral health and cardiac health are closely related so I'm not surprised

  • Reply Subhash September 18, 2019 at 11:34 am

    Noice..

  • Reply TopShelf Pipe September 18, 2019 at 12:58 pm

    I'm bringing scruples back.

  • Reply Ligma Ligma September 18, 2019 at 6:59 pm

    – walks in store

    "Yea uhhh lemme get some heroin bro"

  • Reply Sylvia Street October 1, 2019 at 2:33 pm

    Carris Stewart. From what I’ve read, people experimented with natural things to see what worked.

  • Reply Sylvia Street October 1, 2019 at 2:35 pm

    Before Bayer there was Lydia Pinkham aspirin. Long time ago!

  • Reply RavenTek October 4, 2019 at 8:16 am

    If I had the choice in a store to get cannabis or heroin over the counter, weed always wins 😂

  • Reply Robin Marks October 4, 2019 at 2:04 pm

    I'm the age where I thought it was a good idea to have aspirin for the heart. However, "Over all, the benefits of aspirin were partially counterbalanced by the risks. For every 1,000 people taking aspirin, 11 avoided a serious vascular event (heart attack, stroke, ministroke, or cardiovascular-related death). But nine experienced bleeding that was serious enough to result in hospitalization or death, which means the risks and benefits were about the same. The study appeared in the August 26 New England Journal of Medicine." With every medicine there are risks. So, I stopped the aspirin and decide to eat garlic more often because it's a natural way to thin your blood. Also, adding apple cider vinegar in your diet will help. These are both acids which help the blood flow better. And the benefit is they have no side effects when used. Yes, the stink– so there's that.

  • Reply zxwm Abcdef October 5, 2019 at 10:38 pm

    my grandmother has an old newspaper advertising Bayer Cocaine, Heroin, and Aspirin. It says "When you have pain reach for Bayer Cocaine, Heroin, and Aspirin".

  • Reply zxwm Abcdef October 5, 2019 at 10:43 pm

    There isn't anything wrong with Cocaine or heroin. Cocaine is a needed pain killer. I am allergic to things like novacane the only thing that can be used on me is Cocaine. The reason they were banned was because of the drug addicts.

  • Reply zxwm Abcdef October 5, 2019 at 10:49 pm

    We need to think long and hard before pulling a medicine from the market. My step mother's mom had heart surgery and the only medicine that will control her blood pressure is Xanax. I hurt a disk in my back a couple of years ago. The only medications that stopped the spasms was Ativan and Aspirin.

  • Reply N R October 7, 2019 at 12:00 am

    dont touch cox 1

  • Reply Compassionate Curmudgeon October 7, 2019 at 10:10 pm

    Oh yes, Philisophical Transactions the… SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL!?!????

    It's a good band name though.

  • Reply kirk sanders October 9, 2019 at 10:21 pm

    The History of Aspirin (with a photo of Tylenol)

  • Reply RhiFoxx October 10, 2019 at 8:08 pm

    Hehe.. Cox binding😂🖤😜

  • Reply Bo Reed October 13, 2019 at 4:52 pm

    Hank that was awesome I watched it twice that was a good one!

  • Reply Head Pox October 19, 2019 at 5:58 am

    Great video. "Heroin over the counter"… I found that in Thailand you can get antibiotics over the counter – which is a real worry. Have you got a similar video on Paracetamol ? Is Paracetamol Aspirin's nemesis ?

  • Reply Janet Ross October 22, 2019 at 2:42 am

    Our neurologist is Dr. Bayer!

  • Reply Andrés De la Oliva Guzmán October 25, 2019 at 9:01 pm

    I still remember when I was a 10 year old kid and during the family Christmas dinner I said aspirin was invented thanks to willow bark. Everyone laughed at me and said I was drunk (we give kids cider on Christmas). I was the Christmas joke for years to come… Turns out, I was right lol

  • Reply ShadoFoxx October 27, 2019 at 10:20 am

    Lol I can't take aspirin it'll literally kill me 😂

  • Reply Laura Brooks November 10, 2019 at 4:27 am

    Hey, while you're up… get me some smack. O yea, and hold my beer.

  • Reply AT SSLA [Studio Supporting Local Artists] November 10, 2019 at 12:45 pm

    "..page turner.." 😄

  • Reply Ian Nicholas Tarry Taz-HEX November 15, 2019 at 7:17 pm

    Amusingly Bayer desided to not make aspirin at first because they thought it'd be bad for the heart. That was done by the same bloke who had just recently, before deciding against Asprin, given the OK to heroin. So he said Asprin was to dangerous while giving heroin the all clear. Ironic that it was because he thought the Asprin was dangerous for the heart when you think of how it's commonly used today.

  • Reply Jim Brewer November 15, 2019 at 10:56 pm

    LSD was also not illegal until 1967

  • Reply Jim Brewer November 15, 2019 at 10:59 pm

    Asprin is also an effective blood thinner for people who have blood clots

  • Reply Moira O'Deorain November 26, 2019 at 12:56 pm

    When my mom was a teenager she’d crush up aspirin, mix the powder with water, and put it on the back of a bandaid over her acne

  • Reply Charlie Cross November 30, 2019 at 2:36 am

    I take two every day.

  • Reply diane ridley December 1, 2019 at 12:19 am

    Platelets are not cells.

  • Reply David Thomas December 3, 2019 at 9:14 am

    Scruples? Anyone else thinking of Rick & Morty?

  • Reply Roger Dodger December 4, 2019 at 1:59 am

    Latest meta analysis shows no effect of aspirin on people at risk of CVD but who haven’t don’t have CVD.

  • Reply 4umata December 5, 2019 at 1:18 pm

    There is little evidence to support the idea that the use of aspirin significantly reduces the risk of stroke in people with atrial fibrillation. Furthermore, aspirin's major bleeding risk (including bleeding in the brain) is similar to that of warfarin and DOACs despite its inferior efficacy, so if you are to prescribe Aspirin why not just go for an OAC?

  • Reply Kyle Elliott December 5, 2019 at 7:18 pm

    I'm pretty sure they no longer suggest daily doses of aspirin, as there's no link to risk reduction.

  • Reply Ms. Ortega Perez December 6, 2019 at 7:45 am

    “Can reduce risk of heart attack”
    Pauses video
    Takes aspirin
    Unpauses Video
    “That doesn’t mean you should”
    SWEATS

  • Reply Nobody Here December 7, 2019 at 5:06 pm

    Daily aspirin us no longer recommended for everyone as studies have show it causes more problems than it helps.

  • Reply Nicholas Brownlee December 9, 2019 at 11:26 pm

    So the person who made Aspirin from willow bark was something of a Willow Smith…..

  • Reply Michael S. December 11, 2019 at 10:54 pm

    I learned more here than in a week of nursing school

  • Reply Robert B. December 15, 2019 at 5:10 pm

    Who else is watching this and is on Aspirin right now ????

  • Reply Mega12AX7 December 21, 2019 at 2:58 am

    I love watching your videos they are very interesting and informative. About the colorectal thing and aspirin, taking aspirin didn't do a thing to keep me from getting colorectal cancer. Having arthritis for quite a while and always taking aspirin I still wound up with a tumor the size of a softball that had to be removed. That was no fun but keep up the good work👍

  • Reply Mega12AX7 December 21, 2019 at 3:11 am

    That reminds me back in the late 60s we would smoke aspirin ground up with banana peel strings. All it did was give me a terrible headache 🤯🤯🤯😆✌️

  • Reply Chloe Johnson December 21, 2019 at 4:22 am

    I saw a chart explaining how strong different painkillers are. Tylenol and Advil are 1/240th the strength of morphine. Aspirin is 1/360th the strength of morphine. So you need to take a little more aspirin to get the same painkilling effects. 

    But I still wonder something: why was aspirin considered a miracle drug when they already had morphine?

  • Reply Dhaif Abdo December 30, 2019 at 3:49 am

    Get heroin over the counter back

  • Reply Sarah D January 4, 2020 at 12:23 pm

    If you think about it… you still don’t need a prescription for heroin

  • Reply Duvitgor Hambone January 28, 2020 at 9:05 pm

    Natural things do have life force Chi, Prana and cannot be matched in a Lab That's intuitive Knowledge self evident Knowledge

  • Reply Duvitgor Hambone January 28, 2020 at 9:13 pm

    Aspirin paralyzes your Cilia in your Lungs its not good for you . Go Natural Folks

  • Reply Silas Cochran January 31, 2020 at 12:40 am

    I'm a little disappointed in this information for the fact that Tylenol known by many doctors to be nothing more than a placebo and disastrous to the liver especially if consumed with alcohol it is used in a buffer in many painkillers and has caused cirrhosis of the liver and more veterans than I can count seriously you should check out your facts about Tylenol before you go saying that there is any positive benefits whatsoever when I was young I suffered headaches and migraines it did nothing it is nothing more than a placebo that destroys the liver

  • Reply DiabloMinero February 17, 2020 at 11:08 pm

    Aspirin may not work as well as ibuprofen and naproxen, but it has one advantage they don't: it's existed since forever, so we know what it does. Aspirin deserves trust in a way the newer medicines simply don't.

  • Reply Lola Campbell February 19, 2020 at 6:28 am

    Early native Americans were known to use Willow bark for pain and fever too ..and home remedies that aren't complete bilgewater ..work if you know the correct herb and leaf and how much..and what your doing. Herbalists that are certified along with Western meds is good too..this was a pretty informative video and good

  • Reply Itsa Games February 23, 2020 at 1:06 am

    @8:40 🙃🙃🙃🙃🙃

  • Reply Audio Maverick February 23, 2020 at 10:42 pm

    I hope he didn't run out of scruples… Because then he'd have no scruples.

  • Reply Martins Nathan February 26, 2020 at 7:27 pm

    "You could buy heroin wihout prescription"
    The good old days … want to et back there

  • Reply Mustache Merlin February 28, 2020 at 3:38 pm

    Platelets cause heart attacks? Having watched cells at work, I'm now imagining a tiny, adorable anime girl with murder in her eyes

  • Reply Franco Cavalli February 29, 2020 at 6:51 pm

    Love this channel – I’m a science nerd. Intrigued the whole time.

  • Reply Dominic Hirst March 1, 2020 at 5:29 am

    Great video again, I let my children watch a lot of these in a hope they find an interest in any science. Seems to be working. Keep up the good work 👍🏻

  • Reply Rachel Woodcraft March 1, 2020 at 11:01 am

    A little bit sad no mention of Aspirin's anti-viral properties was made in this video. It has been found to disrupt or impair the replication cycle of many viruses (including those causing the common cold), so regularly taking Aspirin to treat the pain and discomfort of a cold can help reduce the duration and severity of the illness. I do this whenever I have a cold or cold sore (despite having a very low tolerance to Salicylic Acid), and my suffering is no more than half what it would otherwise be.

  • Reply Larry Hovekamp March 1, 2020 at 3:31 pm

    And aspirin might explain why my Grandma lived to 88 years old. She popped aspirin often to treat her severe arthritis she had throughout her adulthood. This permitted her to do farm work and probably prolonged her life.

  • Reply Rebecca Barragan March 2, 2020 at 7:41 am

    Ur mages is so awesome. ..

  • Reply Expat47 March 4, 2020 at 11:09 am

    Go into any pharmacy in the US and see if you can buy a bottle of salt water from the pharmacist. Ask for a liter of saline solution. You'll be told you need a prescription from a doctor. Now, turn around and buy a bottle of the cheapest contact lens cleaner, which is allowed, and you have the EXACT same thing you were just told you needed a prescription for.

  • Reply Kyra Allen March 9, 2020 at 11:17 pm

    it help me in science class thank you

  • Reply BmnGameBoy March 9, 2020 at 11:19 pm

    We've made everything ourselves idiot

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