Articles, Blog

Fungi: Death Becomes Them – CrashCourse Biology #39

August 16, 2019

Hello and welcome to the wonderful
world of fungi (fuhn-gahy), or fungi (fuhn-jahy).
Both are acceptable pronunciations. But I say fungi because it’s fungus.
Not fun-jus. Though fun-jus is also fun to say. Fungi are a little bit like plants, and more like animals
than you might think. They diverged from protists
about a billion years ago, and today scientists estimate
that there are about 1.5 million species of Fungi on the earth,
though in a formal, taxonomic way, we only know about
100,000 or so of them. And those that we have met
are wonderful, weird, and, in some cases, deadly. And the fact is, death is pretty
much what fungi are all about. Sure, there are the fun fungi,
like the single-celled Saccharomyces, also known as yeast. Without them, we wouldn’t
have beer, wine or bread. It’s also true that fungi are
responsible for all kinds of diseases, from athlete’s foot to potentially
deadly histoplasmosis, aka spelunker’s lung,
caused by fungus found in bird and bat droppings. Fungi can even make people crazy. When the fungus Claviceps
purpurea grows on grains used to make bread and beer,
it causes gangrene, nervous spasms, burning sensations, hallucinations,
and temporary insanity. One compound in this fungus,
lysergic acid, is the raw material
used to make LSD. And finally there’s the destruction
that some fungi bring onto other animals: More than 6 million
bats in North America have died since just 2007, due to a fungal
disease called white nose syndrome. And a fungus has been
implicated in several extinctions of amphibians and
threatens many more, perhaps as many as a third
of all amphibians on Earth. But none of this is what I mean
when I talk about fungi and death. While some members of the
fungus family are total bummers, all of them together perform
perhaps the most vital function in the global food web: They feast
on the deceased remains of almost all organisms
on the planet. And by doing that, they convert
the organic matter that we’re all made of back into soil,
from which new life will spring. So, fungi: They thrive on
death, and in the process, make all life possible. Aha! You Didn’t expect to see
me in the chair so soon! But before we go any deeper
into the kingdom fungi, I wanted to make a toast to Louis Pasteur
in the form of
a Biolo-graphy. By Pasteur’s time, beer had been
brewed for thousands of years in cultures all over the world. Some experts think it may have
been the very reason that our hunter-gather ancestors started
farming and cobbled together civilization in the first place. But for all those millennia,
no one understood how its most important ingredient worked. Until brewers could actually
see what yeast were doing, the magic of fermentation was…
essentially magic. Pasteur himself was never a big
beer drinker, but part of his academic duties in France required
him to help find solutions to problems for the
local alcohol industry. And as part of this work, in 1857,
he began studying yeast under a microscope and discovered that
they were in fact living organisms. In a series of experiments
on the newfound creatures, he found that in the absence of
free oxygen, yeast were able to obtain energy by decomposing
substances that contained oxygen. We now know that Pasteur was
observing yeast undergoing the process of anaerobic respiration, aka
fermentation, breaking down the sugars in grains like malted barley,
and converting them into alcohol, carbon dioxide and the range of
flavors that we associate with beer. Along the way, Pasteur also
discovered that beer was often contaminated by other
bacteria and fungi. The growth of these beer-spoiling
microbes, he found, could be thwarted for up to 90 days
by keeping beer between 55 and 60 degrees Celsius
for a short period of time. Today, we call that heating process
pasteurization, and it’s used in everything from milk, to canned
foods, to syrups, to wines. For our purposes, the thing
to hold onto here is, Pasteur discovered that yeasts
decompose sugars to get energy. And it turns out, most fungi spend
most of their time decomposing all kinds of organic matter. Often the matter is dead when
fungi get to it, but not always. When a tree, or a person,
or a deer keels over, fungi move in and start
the work of decomposition. Same goes for that orange you forgot
at the bottom of the fruit bowl. If it weren’t for this fungal
function, plants, and the animals that eat them, couldn’t exist
because the elements that they take from the
soil would never return. Thankfully, the decomposition
performed by fungi recycles the nutrients for the enjoyment
of plants and animals as well as for other fungi. All of this points to
one of the main traits that all fungi have in common. From single-celled yeast to giant
multicellular mushrooms, fungi, like us, are heterotrophs. But instead of eating, they absorb
nutrition from their surroundings. They do this mostly by secreting
powerful enzymes that break down complex molecules into
smaller organic compounds, which they use to feed,
grow, and reproduce. Most multi-cellular fungi
contain networks of tiny, tubular filaments called
hyphae that grow through and within whatever
they’re feasting on. Unlike plant cell walls,
which are made of cellulose, the cell walls of fungi are
strengthened by the nitrogenous carbohydrate chitin, the same
material found in the exoskeletons of insects, spiders,
and other arthropods. The interwoven mass of hyphae
that grows into the food source is called the mycelium, and it’s
structured to maximize its surface area, which as we’ve
learned in both plants and animals is the name of the game when
it comes to absorbing stuff. Mycelia are so densely packed that
1 cubic centimeter of rich soil can contain enough hyphae
to stretch out 1 kilometer if you laid them end to end. So as hyphae secrete the digestive
enzymes, fungi use the food to synthesize more proteins,
and the hyphae continue to grow, allowing the fungi to conquer
new territory and grow even more. As a result, fungi can get crazy big.
Record-holding big. A single honey mushroom in
the Blue Mountains of Oregon is thought to
occupy some 2,386 acres. By area, the largest
organism on the planet. Now there are all kinds of crazy
ways that fungi are classified, but probably the easiest and most
useful is organizing them by how they interact with other organisms. The straight-up decomposers
that break down dead stuff, the mutualists, which
form beneficial relationships with other organisms,
especially plants, and then there are the predators,
and the parasites. Decomposer fungi secrete enzymes
that break down and absorb nutrients from nonliving organic
material, such as that tree that nobody heard
fall in the forest. In fact, the ability of fungi
to break down lignin, which is what makes wood woody,
and break it into glucose and other simple sugars is
crucial for the cycle of life. They’re pretty much the only
organism that can do that. They can even decompose proteins
into component amino acids. Basically, all the black bits in
the soil in your backyard are tiny fragments of former
plants digested by fungi. Mutualist fungi are a smaller group. Many have specialized hyphae
called haustoria that tangle themselves with plant roots for
the benefit of both organisms. These guys help plants absorb
nutrients, especially phosphates, by breaking them down
more efficiently than the roots can themselves. In turn, the fungi send out their
hyphae into the plant’s root tissue and withdraws a
finder’s fee, basically, in the form of energy-rich sugars. These mutualistic relationships
are known as mycorrhizae, from the Greek words “mykes,” or
fungus and “rhizon” or root. Mycorrhizae are enormously
important in natural ecosystems, as well as in agriculture. Almost all vascular plants,
in fact, have fungi attached to their roots and rely on
them for essential nutrients. Growers of barley,
the main ingredient in beer, will even inoculate barley
seed beds with specific mycorrhizal fungi to
help promote growth. Other fungi aren’t nearly
so kind to their hosts. Predatory fungi actively capture
prey with their hyphae, the soil fungus Arthrobotrys uses
modified hoops on its filaments to snare nematodes and
absorb their inner tissue. Then there are the parasites,
those fungi that feed on living organisms without killing
them, at least for a while. Take one of my personal favorites: the zombie ant fungus,
or Ophiocordyceps. It shoots spores into an ant,
where their hyphae grow into its body and absorb nutrients from
non-essential ant organs. When the fungus is ready to
reproduce, it invades the ant’s brain and directs it to march to a cool,
moist location in the forest where its so-called
fruiting spores erupt through the ant’s head to
spread even more spores. And just to prove that
even fungi have superheroes, in 2012 scientists discovered
that these zombie spores have themselves been targeted
by another parasitic fungus. Not a lot is known about
this ant-saving fungus, other than it sterilizes
many of the zombie spores through a process likened
to chemical castration. That is so messed up. Weird! Alright now, since
I brought that up, we should talk briefly
about fungus sex. Fungi reproduce any way they can,
either sexually or asexually. Some species even do it both ways. But whichever way they
choose, most propagate themselves by producing enormous numbers
of spores, much like we saw in nonvascular plants
and the simplest of vascular plants, the ferns. But, and this is a big but,
sexual reproduction in fungi isn’t like sex in any other
organism we’ve studied so far. The concepts of male and female
don’t apply here. At all. Some fungi reproduce on their own. Others can reproduce with
any other individual that happens to be around. And still others can only
mate with a member of a different so-called mating type:
they’re not different sexes, they just have different
molecular mechanisms that either make them compatible or not. Sometimes these types are
called plus or minus, and other times 1 and 2. In any case, it’s still
considered sexual reproduction, because each parent
contributes genetic information when they make with
the spore-making. It all starts with this
beautiful chemical mating dance, as the mycelium from one fungus
sends out pheromones that are picked up and bound to receptors by
another willing and able partner. This binding compels each mycelium
to send its hyphae toward the other. When they meet, they fuse the
cytoplasm of their cells, a stage of reproduction
called plasmogamy. Sometime between hours
and centuries later, yes, it can literally take hundreds
of years for fungi to have sex, this union leads to the
production of spores that each fungus is
then able to disperse. Certain types of fungi,
including the tasty morel, produce spores in sac-like
asci contained in fruiting bodies
known as ascocarps. That is the part you pick when
you’re wandering through the forest. Some fungi shoot their
spores off into the breeze, other spores float
away on the water. More enterprising spores will
hitch a ride on passing critters, hopefully to be dropped off
somewhere where there’s plenty of nutrients to absorb, so they too
can grow, send out sexual pheromones when their time comes and let
their hyphae do the tango. Finally, for some fungi, sexual
reproduction just isn’t all it’s cracked up to be. They’d rather just get
it on with themselves. Some of these grow
filamentous structures that produce spores by mitosis. These structures are visible,
and they’re called molds, the stuff on the orange in
the bottom of the fruit bowl or the heel of the piece of bread
that you left for a roommate who decided to leave it
for the other roommate who thought that you’d
rather have it. In the unicellular yeast,
the asexual reproduction occurs by old-fashioned cell division
or the formation of buds that get pinched off
into separate organisms. Since some species of yeast,
like our beer-making friend, Saccharomyces cerevisiae,
convert sugars into alcohol, brewers create conditions that
encourage high rates of yeast production, like giving
them lots of sugar and oxygen, since more yeast means more alcohol. So, yeah, fungi!
They feast on death, and they can make us go
insane and turn ants into unholy zombies of the night. But because of their hard
work and strange ways, they make possible stuff
like agriculture and beer and everything else
worth living for. So thanks to the fungus.
And also thanks to you for watching this episode
of Crash Course Biology. And of course, thanks to the people
who helped me put it together. They’re awesome. Thank you guys! There’s a table of contents over
there if you want to click on it and go review any of the stuff that
you want to reinforce in your brain. And if you have questions
or comments or ideas for us, we’re on Facebook and
Twitter and of course, we’re down in the comments below. We’ll see you next time.


  • Reply Jacob Gaudet July 8, 2018 at 2:11 am

    in 2017 Paul Stamets said that if you asked him 5 years ago (when this video was published) how many kinds of fungi there are, he would say 1.5M but today he says it could be as high as 5M.

  • Reply marcman5109 July 10, 2018 at 9:25 am

    Fungi, by far the most interesting and important biological entity known to man.

  • Reply Happy Hunting July 14, 2018 at 7:45 pm

    You remind me of Ask a Ninja, R U him?

  • Reply Daimonik July 17, 2018 at 1:55 pm

    Great job not mentioning the symbiotic relations that psilocybin has with the human race

  • Reply Samson Pamson July 17, 2018 at 7:36 pm

    Those were vulpas, not morels.

  • Reply Garry Burgess July 23, 2018 at 11:19 am

    I can only remember the scientific names for about 99,000 fungi, but there is another 1000 or so that are tricky to remember.

  • Reply Bandit July 24, 2018 at 3:54 am

    But as it turns out that might be what you get

  • Reply Wong Tik Ki July 27, 2018 at 4:18 pm

    The last of us.

  • Reply Ida Helen July 30, 2018 at 7:20 am

    I've found one of my favorite youtube channels right here, incredibly well put, easy to understand and kinda fun

  • Reply G_Man August 20, 2018 at 7:32 pm

    The 1.5 million spp estimate may now too conservative. That estimate (David Hawksworth 1991) was calculated from data before the start of the Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) era that allows for discoveries of greater fungal diversity per sample as well as the surge in fungal DNA sequences databases such as BLAST and UNITE. Accounting for fungi living in the tropics, aquatic, marine, and other habitats, the current range may be anywhere from 1.5 million to 10 million fungal species, with 5.1 million species being the most cited median value.

    Fun fact: It's estimated that at most only 10% of all fungi can be grown artificially. The remaining 90% require sequencing for discovery and identification.

  • Reply samuel rodriguez August 21, 2018 at 3:16 pm

    the fungus that makes LSD symptoms is regularly named ergot, for those who don't recognize it by it's scientific name.

  • Reply Wild Man of the North September 10, 2018 at 6:12 pm

    Listen the ants are screaming

  • Reply Tyler Robinson September 18, 2018 at 5:44 am

    I like how there was no music

  • Reply Hexspa September 23, 2018 at 4:47 pm

    Speaking of freaky fungus sex, check out Cordyceps sinensis aka 'Tibetan Viagra'.

  • Reply Carol 70-year-old English NATIONALIST September 26, 2018 at 8:58 pm

    I am 70,I wander forests and nice places living in my tent for 6 months a year.
    This year I decided I would find and take photos of lichen and fungi.
    Thank you for the info on what they are, what they do.
    Great stuff!

  • Reply zach does something October 8, 2018 at 4:26 am

    Fungus is amazing. I’m growing some in my drawer.

  • Reply Michael Franciotti October 10, 2018 at 5:50 am

    Get hyphy with fungi

    Seriously why are there "fun guy" jokes but no hyphy jokes? Did I not scroll far enough?

  • Reply Snoopy à la Guerre October 14, 2018 at 8:21 pm


  • Reply AKASH MAURY October 18, 2018 at 6:51 am

    Gift me this book.

  • Reply Sam Simpson October 21, 2018 at 1:09 am

    Thank you! Really helpful.

  • Reply Fuzzy Lumpkin October 21, 2018 at 10:03 pm

    How many people that saw this really knows about lsd

  • Reply Sofia Koenig October 24, 2018 at 1:05 am

    a way to remember how to say fungi, "fungi are not fun-gis" thumbs-up if you get it!!!

  • Reply Ariel H. November 5, 2018 at 11:15 pm

    The mycelial network

  • Reply Damian Damianio November 6, 2018 at 12:24 pm

    i hear some misinformation here

  • Reply anand thakur November 7, 2018 at 12:16 am


  • Reply Bartacomus Kidd November 12, 2018 at 1:44 pm

    Im never going to watch another of your videos until you grow huuuge bushy sideburns.. 70's style

  • Reply himani arora November 12, 2018 at 10:01 pm

    how come it might take 100 of years for a fungi to reproduce?

  • Reply The World Of Davey November 14, 2018 at 5:14 am

    This is for all those Fun-gies and Fun-gals watching

  • Reply Kathy Burnett November 15, 2018 at 7:26 pm

    Love this guy!

  • Reply Cleon Simpson November 27, 2018 at 7:08 am

    millions of years having sex…go fungi

  • Reply Aidan Greene November 28, 2018 at 3:56 am

    What about warts?

  • Reply Abbygail Williams December 5, 2018 at 2:04 am

    Am I the only one who has to slow down the speed? He talks so fast

  • Reply Abbygail Williams December 5, 2018 at 2:05 am

    I love crash coarse so damn much!!

  • Reply Bobomb73 December 5, 2018 at 6:21 am

    Thanks for helping me cram after not going to class for over a month :)))

  • Reply Jessica Crawford December 7, 2018 at 5:39 am

    I got weirdly excited for a biolography because it’s been 6 episodes since the last one 🙂

  • Reply Paul Wallis December 8, 2018 at 2:18 am

    Other people have commented on this, but: As one of those people who react instantly and very negatively to anyone who sounds like a motormouth, I had to overcome this reaction before I believe this rattle of words was OK and could get in to the subject. The delivery is flawless and fluent,. but not articulated/expressed with emphases enough to break it up. That said – Play it on 0.75 and he sounds drunk.

  • Reply Sanhita Saxena December 8, 2018 at 12:01 pm

    Unholy Zombies of the night…totally cool!

  • Reply Vanessa Hodges December 11, 2018 at 9:02 pm

    You're awesome. Thank you for these videos!

  • Reply Matteo Gagliardi December 16, 2018 at 6:00 pm

    Wow! Fungi are actually super interesting!

  • Reply Ace Spa December 19, 2018 at 7:54 pm

    That poor ant :O

  • Reply Zara Fareed December 24, 2018 at 4:11 pm

    Hey uhh, does alternation of generations take place in fungi

  • Reply Gamer Bouss January 2, 2019 at 2:24 pm


  • Reply christian rey ansus January 7, 2019 at 5:26 am

    Fun guy

  • Reply Daniel Hahn January 20, 2019 at 6:12 pm

    Wow, this is really good. Interesting and concise. Well done.

  • Reply Rabix January 27, 2019 at 9:03 am


  • Reply Crustin Danglade January 28, 2019 at 2:33 pm

    Can someone explain how the fungus version of mating types is different from sex in other species, not trying to be inflammatory just curious. Like are there different kinds of “1’s” that must mate with a specific set of “2’s” or something else? Seriously really curious!

  • Reply daniel gomez January 28, 2019 at 4:42 pm

    puto video rata

  • Reply Jenna Melman January 30, 2019 at 1:44 am

    This isn't against this channel personally, just saying that for me at least and a lot of people i know these science videos on youtube it would be so much easier to process and understand without all the jokes. It's just so much being thrown at you for a viewer, all this information you're trying to make sense of and you have to quickly realize what's important information and what's a joke. The jokes are distracting, and for me and i'm sure a lot of people, annoying-even if it was a good joke, because it distracts from the information and you have to try and think about the concept from the beginning all over again. For me i have to replay things multiple times a lot of the time to go back to try and connect the relevant concepts. I get why the jokes are there, cause creators think it would be boring without them, but a lot of people would prefer it that way- i wish there was at least one channel that had the helpful animatics and that was all it was. If i had the time i would love to make a channel where i take science videos and edit out the jokes so it's just the useful explanation and that's it, they don't try to make it 'comedy'.

  • Reply Youthoob Gamer February 5, 2019 at 3:26 pm

    No mention of jock itch

  • Reply McCrae Milton February 6, 2019 at 6:36 pm

    Stop reading the comments and keep studying! 😀 You got this!

  • Reply Zaakir D February 10, 2019 at 8:50 pm

    fun-gee or fun-gy…..

  • Reply The pika RIVERA February 15, 2019 at 4:34 pm

    Should've watched this yesterday…

  • Reply The LOL Minecrafter February 23, 2019 at 7:54 pm

    I agree, Hank. I know a lot of homosexual individuals that are fun to play arcade games with.

  • Reply Bubbly somsom February 24, 2019 at 9:51 pm

    here in 2019 🙂

  • Reply Brian Frumps February 28, 2019 at 12:42 am

    A billion years ago…ya ok…earths newer than we think

  • Reply Brian Frumps February 28, 2019 at 12:43 am

    They grow wild here

  • Reply somot olovo March 5, 2019 at 11:43 pm

    So fungi have no brain but it know how to use one.

  • Reply manihot March 25, 2019 at 10:15 pm

    fun guy

  • Reply Rebecca Lambert April 9, 2019 at 12:38 pm

    Hey hank you really are a fun-gi

  • Reply Matt Garrett April 10, 2019 at 2:32 pm

    Why does he have an accent every two words?

  • Reply Jahongir Tohirov April 14, 2019 at 2:57 pm

    omg lol the way he talks xD

  • Reply WhiteBuffaloCalfWoman TwinDeerMother April 30, 2019 at 11:17 pm

    Brother, do you have a fungal spore spray video? Thank you. Sister

  • Reply SAMZIRRA May 2, 2019 at 10:58 pm

    I always thought Hyphy originated in the Bay.

  • Reply Will May 3, 2019 at 8:09 pm


  • Reply Laboratorio Ciencias May 5, 2019 at 7:07 pm

    Magic Shrooms MAUAUAUUAUA

  • Reply Olivia Murphy May 13, 2019 at 6:42 pm

    god bless this channel

  • Reply Matteo Englert May 20, 2019 at 6:51 pm

    actually looks in fruit bowl next to him and sees a forgotten orange covered in mold ******

  • Reply MP P May 21, 2019 at 6:49 am

    Anaerobic respiration is not fermentation

  • Reply Mr Petty May 23, 2019 at 12:08 am


  • Reply Emilia Jimenez May 23, 2019 at 4:20 am

    Someone could you tell me the Books name?

  • Reply Rohan Arora May 27, 2019 at 5:21 am

    Can you get some plant morphology and anatomy stuff sir 🙂

  • Reply Shubhansu Ranjan June 10, 2019 at 2:49 pm

    This is a big butt

  • Reply robberyyyyy June 13, 2019 at 9:16 pm

    fungi don't have ears, right? so they don't really care if the tree makes sound or not when it dies.
    when i then wonder, is how the fungus gets to the tree…

  • Reply Rachel Stoner June 14, 2019 at 4:07 am

    Thank you so much! I’m in a program at Penn Foster and have to study everything on my own. I don’t know what I would do without them!

  • Reply Robin Huber June 14, 2019 at 2:22 pm

    At 6:20, you say that lignin is degraded into glucose… That's not true ! Lignin is a polyphenolic structure, not composed of glucose at all. I guess you confuse it with cellulose 🙂

  • Reply daileydestruction June 16, 2019 at 11:34 pm

    Fungi has been around more than a billion years

  • Reply B Kee June 25, 2019 at 7:06 am

    To be honest I think they’re thinking about it wrong. It’s less that the fungi is helping plants communicate and more that it’s in the best interest of the fungi for the plants to survive so it’s gardening them

  • Reply Parker Cubing June 28, 2019 at 9:39 pm

    lysergic acid… dont you mean psylocybin

  • Reply Nithara HETTI ARACHCHIGE June 30, 2019 at 5:17 am

    easy sub

  • Reply Gitana Maldita July 4, 2019 at 12:42 am

    Never thought of Beck Hansen being a geeky sciency guy, clearly, not a looser at all !!

    (indeed I was listening to Beck in the background while listening this fungi video) ?‍♀️

  • Reply Paul hornet July 4, 2019 at 11:57 pm


  • Reply Troy Tryclay July 7, 2019 at 1:27 am

    You say death becomes them, but they're the symbiont supporting like 70% of the plant species responsible for life on our planet. So, having heard nothing of interest, now at the 1:42 mark, I've stopped the video. CrashCourse crashed?

  • Reply Luka Šauperl July 9, 2019 at 4:33 pm

    I have to pee…

  • Reply john tindell July 12, 2019 at 5:13 am

    thank you

  • Reply Mad Monkee July 14, 2019 at 11:14 pm

    Odd that Hank knows how to pronounce "fungi" correctly, considering the way that he mispronounces "niche" (at /nitch/) "diploid" (as /daiploid/) and "hyphae" (as /hyphi/). (For those that didn't pass Latin class, ae = e, so hyphae sounds like /hyfe/.)

  • Reply love evynn July 18, 2019 at 1:21 am


  • Reply Shark Kowalski July 20, 2019 at 7:34 pm

    Fun guy!

  • Reply Cosmic Hobo July 23, 2019 at 8:39 am

    I feel like the chair has been missing from more recent episodes

  • Reply MrSubsound90 July 23, 2019 at 3:26 pm

    These are really growing on me

  • Reply Malvakai P July 24, 2019 at 3:04 am

    The very reason gif is not pronounced like peanut butter, because graphics isn't pronounced jirafics.

  • Reply Stuart Watson July 25, 2019 at 5:26 pm

    This video massively plays down the importance and complexity of fungi.

  • Reply Stuart Watson July 25, 2019 at 5:26 pm

    This video massively plays down the importance and complexity of fungi.

  • Reply Anshu Deepanshu July 28, 2019 at 2:05 pm

    it would be even better if he speaks slower

  • Reply Jasvant Singh August 1, 2019 at 3:42 am

    What is coenocentrum sir

  • Reply eqlzr2 August 1, 2019 at 3:33 pm

    If it compromises the transmission and retention of information, is fast good? Also, what do you call a mushroom with a 9 inch stem? A fun-gi to be around.

  • Reply Johnathan Howard August 1, 2019 at 6:07 pm

    What species take hundreds of years to reproduce???

  • Reply Sanchita Dhuri August 5, 2019 at 6:44 am

    Fungii is actually fun and joy ??

  • Reply Alex ander August 9, 2019 at 11:41 am

    im oddly hyped to get turned into hyphe :3

  • Reply DARK SAD QUEEN August 11, 2019 at 11:32 pm


  • Reply Swapnil Patil August 14, 2019 at 4:34 am

    Yes fungus and not funjus???

  • Leave a Reply