Articles, Blog

Candidal Infections – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

August 12, 2019

Candida is a yeast, not the maple syrup-loving
country in North America – although Candida can be found in Canada as well! Candida sometimes causes a mild yeast infection,
but in some situations, can get into the bloodstream and cause severe illness. Now, there are various types of Candida species,
and over twenty of them cause disease in humans – C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis,
C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. auris, the list goes on. Of these, the most common one is C. albicans. Candida is found throughout the body; it likes
warm, moist environments like the mouth, the diaper region of babies, and in women it can
be found in the vagina. Now, it’s normal for microbes – bacteria,
fungi, and viruses – to live all over the body, but each microbe is slightly different
in terms of whether it’s colonizing the body – in other words just living and not
causing any problems, or whether it’s infecting the body, causing some degree of tissue damage
or destruction. An important factor is exactly how much of
a microbe is present. Candida is considered an opportunistic microbe. When the amount of Candida is relatively low,
it’s harmless. But if a person’s immune system is weakened
or if there’s less competition for the Candida, then the amount of Candida can increase – and
that’s called Candida overgrowth. Now, Candida can exist in multiple forms – it’s
a bit like a chameleon. Sometimes the cells can appear round or oval
and these are called yeast cells, other times it can appear like hyphae where it looks like
long thin filaments – kind of like a segmented cactus plant. It can also take an in-between appearance
called pseudohyphae. Each of these morphologies or “looks”
reflect the same Candida cells that are expressing different protein profiles, and they give
the cells different properties. When the Candida is in “yeast mode” it’s
better at moving from one part of the body to another, whereas when it’s in “filamentous
mode” it’s better at invading tissues. Candida typically lives on the skin or mucous
membranes, and when it starts to overgrow it can damage nearby tissue. There are a few patterns of injury, the most
common one is pseudomembranous candidiasis, and it’s primarily due to a weakened immune
system that allows for Candida overgrowth. The result is destruction of the stratified
squamous epithelium layer, which is the outermost layer of the skin or mucous membranes. This causes accumulation of the destroyed
cells and the keratin protein that fills that outermost layer, forming a white lesion, called
a pseudomembrane, that looks kind of like “cottage cheese”. The white lesions aren’t typically painful
and they can be scraped away with a tongue depressor, leaving behind a red mucosal base
which sometimes bleeds. Since the underlying cause is a weakened immune
system, it’s fairly common in young infants and the elderly, both groups that have a relatively
weak immune system. It can also be related to an immunosuppressive
condition like diabetes or HIV, or from immunosuppressive medical treatments like steroids – including
inhaled steroids, as well as radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Another pattern of injury is called erythematous
candidiasis and that typically results from a change in the levels of microbial competition
keeping Candida in check. For example, a course of antibiotics or tobacco
smoking, which both selectively destroy certain bacterial populations more than they affect
Candida. The opposite is true as well, sometimes there
are mechanical devices like braces that favor Candida growth more than the growth of other
microbes. In either situation, the result is an overgrowth
of Candida which causes increased blood flow to the affected tissue with red painful lesions. In a lot of situations there’s a mixed pattern
of injury with both a pseudomembranous and erythematous component. Candidal infections can affect various parts
of the body. The most common location is in the mouth where
it causes thrush – which is usually a pseudomembranous candidiasis, so classically it looks like
white cottage cheese on the buccal and gingival mucosa. Candida can also affect the esophagus, resulting
in an esophagitis that can cause pain with swallowing. Candida can affect the diaper region of babies,
causing a diaper rash with redness surrounded by scattered red spots that are called satellite
lesions because they look like tiny red satellites that are not contiguous with the rest of the
rash. Another common one is vulvovaginitis, commonly
called a yeast infection in women, and it can cause vaginal itching and discharge as
well as pain while urinating. Now in addition to local infections, Candida
can cause more serious invasive infections, and these often develop in individuals that
have underlying immunodeficiencies. Other risk factors for serious candidal infections
include hyperglycemia and reduced stomach acidity. The most common situation is an infection
of a prosthetic device like a central venous catheter. In these settings, Candida forms a biofilm
which is where the yeast lives within a jelly like matrix of proteins and behaves more like
a large colony than like a collection of individual cells. Candida is able to infect devices and if the
infection isn’t treated, then over time, small clumps of the yeast-laden biofilm can
break away, get into the blood, and can cause infections in other locations – like on the
heart valves. From the blood, Candida can also cause infections
in the liver and spleen as well as the bones and joints. It also likes to cause infections in the kidney;
the Candida can reach the kidneys from the blood, as well as by going up the ureters
after a urinary tract infection. Candida can also cause meningitis, in particular
if it infects a device in that space – like a ventricular shunt. What’s more is that Candida can cause particularly
worrisome infections of the eye. Diagnosis of oral candidiasis can be confirmed
with a culture, and ultimately a tissue biopsy might be done in some cases as well. For invasive infections, antigen testing can
also be done – for example one test looks for a cell wall component called beta-D-glucan
which is found in Candida and a few other fungal species. Another test is Candida PCR which detects
candidal DNA. Treatment of candidiasis depends on the location
and severity of the infection. Oral thrush is treated with oral nystatin
suspension, whereas vulvovaginitis and skin infections are treated with topical antifungals. Resistant infections are often treated with
azole antifungal medications. In severe infections, especially when there’s
a prosthetic device like a catheter or a ventricular shunt that’s infected with a biofilm, it’s
often necessary to remove the device. Severe infections are often treated with a
medication like amphotericin, azole antifungals, or echinocandins like Micafungin. Alright recap: Candida is an opportunistic
fungus that can overgrow in situations where there are fewer competitive microorganisms
or a weakened immune system. Common sites of infection include the mouth,
the esophagus, the vulvovaginal region, and the groin in infants. These superficial infections are usually treated
with nystatin or topical antifungals. Severe infections include those where a biofilm
forms over a prosthetic device, and typically require removal of the infected device.


  • Reply Paul Bu December 4, 2017 at 9:37 pm


  • Reply Aashi December 4, 2017 at 9:46 pm

    Uploaded just in time for my microbio exam! 😊

  • Reply Feraidun Haroon December 4, 2017 at 9:53 pm

    Trump is the person who would mistake Canada for Candida

  • Reply Manuel Luna December 4, 2017 at 10:13 pm

    soo amazing and very interesting, congrats!! more videos please!

  • Reply On the quest for the name of a song December 4, 2017 at 10:51 pm

    Have no idea what candida is but it was interesting as heck

  • Reply Troublemaker December 4, 2017 at 11:50 pm

    please make a video about diphtheria

  • Reply Mariem Ahmed December 5, 2017 at 12:39 am

    I love this video! Thank you

  • Reply Prateek Srivastava December 5, 2017 at 1:52 am

    Thank You

  • Reply AK G December 5, 2017 at 2:07 am

    Very nice

  • Reply Gabriel_89_91 December 5, 2017 at 7:52 am

    I love Canada

  • Reply homeless homeless December 5, 2017 at 9:38 am

    Great job thanks

  • Reply Medicina en Video December 5, 2017 at 1:24 pm

    Candida no Cánada 😂

  • Reply Bogdan Rus December 6, 2017 at 9:35 am

    You forgot to mention nail infections…

  • Reply Албанус Презилга December 6, 2017 at 5:26 pm

    anyone here has a white coated tongue too?

    this shit won't die. i scrape it only to grow thicker the next minute.

    nystatin oral suspension, will this work?
    i've tried others that didnt work.

    ps – i know this might not b candida

  • Reply Alex Klatt December 6, 2017 at 11:56 pm

    Is it the same as "thrush"?

  • Reply kiran kumari March 10, 2018 at 11:43 pm


  • Reply Mohammad Mn April 5, 2018 at 4:29 pm

    thank you lot

  • Reply Fck'in NonStick!!! April 17, 2018 at 6:49 am

    Dr.Simoncini, Italian oncologiest said that candida can become a cancer.

  • Reply Aml Zaky May 5, 2018 at 9:22 pm

    Thank you so much <3 Having Oral medicine exam tomorrow

  • Reply Muhammad Usman May 14, 2018 at 9:46 am

    Plz also upload videos regarding cutaneous, subcutaneous and systemic mycosis…plz

  • Reply mok420 May 21, 2018 at 9:32 am

    blame canada!

  • Reply farah taha May 23, 2018 at 9:46 am


  • Reply Bibash Kunwar JBR June 20, 2018 at 2:53 pm

    we want more microbiology videos

  • Reply Andy Mg August 3, 2018 at 8:02 am

    Where is the « thanks for watching, you can help support us… »

  • Reply tyora December 28, 2018 at 12:00 am

    I need some help here!
    I think i have candida but not that active, all the symptoms i have are:
    Fatigue, dizziness, continuous yeast infection in my genital (like cotton-cheesy form), eczema, white tongue, a horrible itching in my genitals that may make me want to cut myself and blood, lower stomach pain, bad breath especially in the morning and small white acnes (not inflamed) in my forehead and a little bit in all of my face
    I actually don't have any special irritation to food but i feel bloated when i drink milk and feel no good
    no infected nail
    I went to a lot of doctors they are only good at one thing: giving me antibiotics untill i die with no specific diagnosis
    Am i having candida? Please answer
    Sorry for my english

  • Reply Jacob February 17, 2019 at 9:27 am

    Are yeast infections considered a systemic fungal infection for the purposes of contraindication for corticosteroids

  • Reply Pratishtha Patny April 10, 2019 at 10:39 am

    Thank you

  • Reply raidenX flare April 11, 2019 at 2:01 pm

    smoke weed

  • Reply GreatGood April 15, 2019 at 1:30 pm

    Thanks for this one

  • Reply Lindee Lou Hendrix April 16, 2019 at 7:37 pm

    That's why I'm pro-probiotic!

  • Reply New Nana April 20, 2019 at 3:10 am

    This isn’t the same fungus going around killing people. Totally different fungus.

  • Reply splendor Inthegrass April 20, 2019 at 4:18 am

    I feel like I have all the strands in my body. I want to throw myself in the trash…

  • Reply Alex Smith May 6, 2019 at 6:46 am

    The latest thread: candida Auris, 50/50 of dying in 90 days if caught.
    It is a field fungus which apparently has become a super bug due to the fungicides and has spread into hospitals.
    As shown by this video If candida albicans is aggressive, it looks as if we have seen nothing yet with candida Auris with regards to the bad effects on the human body, and there are no drugs.
    Remember that big pharma is not developing new drugs, it is a question of time before more and more super bugs will keep appearing.
    What to do? Strengthen your immune system. Vaccines is not a way, on the contrary, it weakens it.
    For example i havecread that you have immunity for life against Measles by letting your child have naturally the Measles and have a stronger immune system so that later on in life they have a greater chance of being to fight these newly emerging man promoted super bugs.

  • Reply Rachel Brad May 12, 2019 at 6:41 am

    Eat tons of garlic

  • Reply Vahagn melikyan May 14, 2019 at 3:34 pm

    That sounds a lot like cancer to me. Invades tissues, breaks off than attacks other organs…

  • Reply D Wood May 22, 2019 at 12:11 am

    Des nastehh

  • Reply kwegyiraggrey emmanuel May 23, 2019 at 5:53 am

    What medicine is good for treatment

  • Reply Joe Hernandez May 25, 2019 at 2:26 pm

    Follow these steps to get rid of Candida:
    Eliminate sugar from your diet
    Eliminate carbohydrates
    Avoid anything with grains, legumes, rice, etc…
    Avoid fruit
    Avoid milk
    Eat only veggies and meat
    Avoid soda, coffee
    Drink warm lemon water first thing in the morning.
    Drink Paul De arco tea, 3 times per day.
    Drink 5 drops of oregano water 3 times a day.
    Fast 2-3 times per week with Bone broth (for more on this check out this blog: @t
    All that was relayed above needs to be done for 6 weeks straight. If you mess up, begin again after the 6th week, another 6 weeks.

  • Reply 4 ever May 29, 2019 at 4:23 pm

    I drink tons of soda and it is loaded with sugar. < That has made me SICK.
    STOP DRINKING SODAS…Drink water instead and fast.
    And eat yogurt. This video did not cover all areas.
    Do some more studies to help cure your body.
    I do suggest eating garlic as well.

  • Reply Mr. M Knight May 30, 2019 at 8:41 pm

    Blood blood blood. No. This creature moves exactly like cancer through the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.

  • Reply Johnny Limitless Sanchez May 31, 2019 at 1:45 am

    STOP taking Antibotics…

  • Reply Christina Mitrovich June 1, 2019 at 7:04 am

    I have a question and it may sound really silly but does canadia affect a woman's chances to reproduce successfully? I have history of this problem and had two miscarriages from anembryonic pregnancies. I am very frustrated and sad. What is the best solution in this case?

  • Reply modernhippielife June 1, 2019 at 5:39 pm

    Nice video 🙂 I do wish that the author would have talked a little bit about causes of candida. Why does the body have candida overgrowth to begin with!?

    If we want to heal the body we have to go to the root cause 🙂

  • Reply Baby Ghany June 13, 2019 at 3:35 pm

    Try borax

  • Reply Bernadette Ngozika July 3, 2019 at 7:55 pm

    drugs to treatment of Candida

  • Reply Gyaan Agarwal July 24, 2019 at 4:01 pm

    Wtf I nfo

  • Reply N0N 0N July 28, 2019 at 9:17 am

    It was about time, arms up this will burn a bit.

  • Reply Jazanaia Gagamoe July 31, 2019 at 11:59 pm

    you spelt environment wrong. You said envirnoment.

  • Reply Jagraj Singh August 7, 2019 at 10:41 am

    I was suffering from fungal infection whose symptoms were – rashes, itching and inflammation over my skin. I took so many allopathic medicines, used antifungal creams and powders but not much improvement was there. One day during surfing the internet I saw Planet Ayurveda, I thought of consulting Dr. Vikram Chauhan, I met Dr. He prescribed me with nirgundi oil and neem capsules. You can't believe, I used it for 1 month only, in 1 month my problem is 50% resolved, which I have never seen with allopathic medicines….Thanks to Planet Ayurveda for giving me new life!!!

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