Articles, Blog

Camels, Code & Lab Coats: How AI Is Advancing Science and Medicine

February 18, 2020

man: There’s been many
innovations over the years that drive science. If you go back in history, many scientific insights
actually derived from new tools that were able to
measure new things. AI is very, very good at
finding new paths that haven’t been seen before. It’s almost an enhancement on
our ability to sense the world. man: The main benefit of
machine learning is the ability to learn from
lots and lots of data. man: We can show a computer a
lot of examples, and rather than tell a model
how to evaluate that data can learn actually how to
interpret it and figure out what to do next. woman: Here at Google, we’ve
been using machine-learning technologies
in all of our products, things like Search, Translate,
Google Photos, and the Assistant. man: People are realizing that
learning from examples is a very powerful tool. man: So researchers in the
health care community were looking at some of the
work that Google was doing in artificial intelligence and
actually reached out to us and said, “Is there a way that
you could apply these same kind of technologies
in health care?” Doctors today have more
artificial intelligence working for them on their
smartphone for their personal use than
they have working for them in the clinical context. woman: And as doctors, we’ve
just gotten more information kind of shoved at us in terms
of records, in terms of images. woman: Think about all the
different type of cells that you have. man: 15,000, 20,000 different
diagnosis codes. man: Just a cubic millimeter of
tissue, it’s like taking,
you know, a billion photos. man: And if you print it out,
it would probably be about as tall as a ten-story
building. man: Really any kind of data
that people can generate on a massive scale is really an
area where machine learning can
help. [upbeat music] man: Now there’s an opportunity
to use all our digital technologies that have been
developed at Google to really try to help doctors. man: Let’s take some of these
tools that are great for analyzing videos and
YouTube and apply them to problems that matter to
science. man: One of the things we’ve
been working on in medical imaging is in the
area of pathology. Traditionally, pathologists
take some tissue sample, and they look around in a sea
of cells looking for the kind of needle
in a haystack cancerous tissue. man: We know that the earlier
you detect the cancer the greater your chance of
curing it and the greater your chance of
curing it without chemotherapy or
radiation. So the biggest challenges are
speed and accuracy of diagnosis. So far we’ve trained models for
breast cancer and prostate cancer. woman: These technologies can
actually identify suspicious areas to direct the
doctor’s attention. man: So one of the things we
wanted to do was get this work into the hands of as
many people as possible. man: And so we developed
something called the augmented reality
microscope, where you can actually see
machine learning assistance overlaid in real time as
you’re looking through the microscope. man: These units can be
attached onto any existing microscope greatly
reducing the cost We’re really excited to bring
machine learning to parts of the world with
limited access. [light vibraphone music] man: One of the tools some
biologists use is, they will dye cells with
different colors to highlight certain important
features that make sense to them. man: The problem is, you have
to kill the cells in order to color them. man: So we said, “Well, if we
can do this virtually in a computer, we can preserve
the cell in its natural state.” man: One of the things that you
can do on your pixel phone right now is given a selfie,
you can predict the depth, and you can do interesting
visual effects. So we thought, “Hey, can we
take this same technology and apply it in a biological
context” and essentially use machine
learning to predict the stain. We weren’t sure whether this
would work or not, and it ended up working so
well. We’re very hopeful that this
technology can be used to just have the computer
generate the pretty pictures that people know how to
interpret. [orchestral music] man: The brain is probably the
most complex physical object in the known
universe. We know that there are these
basic units called neurons, and they’re connected in many
different ways. What’s shocking is how little
is known about what those patterns of
connectivity look like and what that means for how the
brain works. The problem is very hard, because the connections are too
large to analyze. For example, a fly brain has
100,000 neurons, whereas a human brain has 100
billion neurons. So fortunately, at Google,
you know, there’s been already a lot of
work put into dealing with data sets of that size. Machine learning and the
computer vision technology that we’ve developed has been
designed to accurately trace the wiring
of the brain in 3-D. Prior to that technology, it would have taken thousands
of years to basically finish mapping the
fly brain. Now you can do it within a year
or two. It’s a warm-up to understanding
larger and more complex brains, hopefully human brains. We’re hoping that mapping a
brain could potentially help us
understand a lot of the neurodegenerative
disorders– for example, Schizophrenia or
Parkinson’s– then we’re gonna be able to
design better therapies that might improve those
conditions. [delicate piano music] man: There are tremendous
inequities in the way that health care is
distributed across the globe. Any disease or outcome is
predicted as much by your zip code as it
is by your biology. man: So what can we do with
AI to bring the expertise to where no expertise exists? woman: One of the complications
of diabetes is diabetic retinopathy. It causes blindness, and it’s diagnosed by seeing
little lesions in the eye. But in India, there is a
shortage of eye doctors. And as a result, about half the
patients suffer some form of vision loss. This disease is completely
preventable. This shouldn’t really be
happening. So we were able to train a
model to read these images and match board-certified
ophthalmologists. We’re now figuring out how to
deploy this into the clinic. In India, people who did not
have access now have access. [light piano music] man: A lot of science are is driven by a hypothesis that someone has. But some of the biggest
breakthroughs in science come from surprises, things no
one expected to have happened. man: One of the really exciting
things about deep learning is where you can just give it
the raw data, and it finds the important
features. That’s interacting with
scientists at a very different level than
saying, “Well, let me show you
something you’ve never seen before.” man: We had one research
project, we were looking at human
retinas. But what surprised us was
machine learning started seeing things that people
didn’t know was possible. woman: Turns out that a
deep-learning model is actually able to identify
things that have nothing to do with
your eyes, like your cardiovascular health
and your metabolic profile. These are things that if you
had asked experts, “What do you think we’ll find?” They would have said nothing. man: The important thing about
this is, it’s a visual biomarker that we
did not know existed before. man: Those unexpected things
may lead to a whole new idea, a whole new approach, a whole
new hypothesis for how to attack the problem
you’re trying to address. man: There are real patients
suffering today, and if we’re not doing
everything we can with all the technology at our
disposal to help those patients, then
what are we doing? man: I think that 10 or 15
years from now, the use of machine learning in
health care is just going to be how health
care is one woman: I think this is how
we’re gonna find new discoveries. I think this is how we’re gonna
find ways to care of more people. man: The more we can accelerate
that basic work and give all these scientists
new tools, we will as humans really
benefit from the new discoveries that
one day end up in our doctors’ offices.


  • Reply A k September 21, 2018 at 2:14 pm


  • Reply Freakin' Assasin September 21, 2018 at 2:14 pm

    1st view n cmnt and like too

  • Reply Shivam Srivastava September 21, 2018 at 2:14 pm


  • Reply Prashant Kumar September 21, 2018 at 2:14 pm

    Hey google can you give me a home job

  • Reply Dev Panchal September 21, 2018 at 2:14 pm


  • Reply jefinafita September 21, 2018 at 2:14 pm

    jefi bom diaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa

  • Reply A k September 21, 2018 at 2:14 pm

    I'm Iraqi

  • Reply oops_error 47 September 21, 2018 at 2:14 pm


  • Reply J K September 21, 2018 at 2:16 pm

    Next: How AI is going to pick the next American President in 2020! 🤔

  • Reply Abdul Wasio September 21, 2018 at 2:16 pm


  • Reply ขุนชาย เถาวัลย์ September 21, 2018 at 2:17 pm


  • Reply Manish Patel6190 September 21, 2018 at 2:18 pm

    Google no competitor

  • Reply 小林Lin's life September 21, 2018 at 2:23 pm

    That's cool

  • Reply MrAmad3us September 21, 2018 at 2:23 pm

    I wish Google would develop consumer oriented hardware to support their awesome software… A biometric-centered smartwatch maybe ?
    If I'm defaulting to an Apple watch I'd be forced to also use an iPhone, and I'd like to avoid that…I really would.

  • Reply The Alex Room September 21, 2018 at 2:27 pm

    I Love Google

  • Reply Igor Gabrielan September 21, 2018 at 2:34 pm

  • Reply Being A Pro September 21, 2018 at 2:35 pm

    Love you Google. ❤️

  • Reply Bhushan Patil September 21, 2018 at 2:40 pm

    come on Google, It's an alien technology!! it's beyond human technology and capabilities. This technology is not possible without outsiders.

  • Reply AEIDOLONE September 21, 2018 at 2:43 pm

    I love computer science.

  • Reply Rohitaswa Sarbhangia September 21, 2018 at 2:44 pm

    If we're not doing everything we can with all the tech at our disposal to help those patient, then *what are we doing*.

  • Reply Ajmal Abidin NUR September 21, 2018 at 2:44 pm

    Wow! And what was that camera Translate?? I wanna use it

  • Reply 오jaehwan September 21, 2018 at 2:50 pm

    자막을 한국어로 바꾸면 정말 많은 도움이 됩니다 그럼 어느나라에서

  • Reply nirav kalola September 21, 2018 at 2:53 pm

    Love this 😍😘 I'm a computer science student. I like to learn about big data and machine learning 😍😍😍

  • Reply dont1975 September 21, 2018 at 2:58 pm

    Finally something useful!

  • Reply Esteban V September 21, 2018 at 3:10 pm

    I wanted to work with MRI models to train an AI project that I had in mind but the hospitals I consulted had privacy concerns about my idea 🙁
    I just wanted to discover ways to detect no threatening scans in ms in order to clear the already packed waiting rooms in ERs

  • Reply Rd Rz September 21, 2018 at 3:32 pm

    Where is this impact available

  • Reply Reinis S September 21, 2018 at 3:44 pm

    Youtube's algorthm was perfect so now it is diagnosing cancer.

  • Reply Melody Hynes September 21, 2018 at 3:58 pm

    so what you're saying is you can use advanced AI to be a personal fact hording device that when asked a question can repeat something it's already learned? and connect to the internet to learn how to smelt metal? based on google searches of what copper ore looks like and how to smelt it?

  • Reply Nester D'souza September 21, 2018 at 4:03 pm

    I am number 50

  • Reply Kmykzy September 21, 2018 at 5:44 pm

    People have been thinking about these things for a long time, eg. caduceus system from the 1980s, yet the integration of AI into today's diagnosis medicine feels decades behind what it should be. I think you guys should approach the medical system in smaller countries and trade computing power and AI assistance for raw data. Like give every GP office in that country free access to an AI platform where they can log all patient information (under anonymity of course) and where the software displays possible diagnosis, further recommended tests, prognosis and maybe hidden links for epidemiologists, etc. Patients get better treatment overall, the doctors get a lot of help the they need and you guys get a huge data gold mine. Positive sum-game for everyone involved imo.

  • Reply Dry Saliva September 21, 2018 at 6:29 pm

    You can notice arterial hypertension on retinas without any AI.

  • Reply Dry Saliva September 21, 2018 at 6:29 pm

    You can notice arterial hypertension on retinas without any AI.

  • Reply Sharanabasava Thalange September 21, 2018 at 7:27 pm

    No doubt Google's the only organisation which is working on solving various kind of adversities.

  • Reply D Man September 21, 2018 at 9:38 pm

    Electromagnetic spectrum filtering. See invisible light. See sounds. Artificial taste, smell, touch. You need more sensors. Artificial nose. Artificial ear. Artificial hawk eye, fish eye, dog eye. Pressure sensors. Filter out within a range. Copy nature, artificial bats ear. Sense combinations. Black and white picture and assign colour to sounds, xrays, radiobwaves. Fractal growth. Artificial cells. Artificial organs. Multiple world views, Multiple analysis. 3d printed damage detection nano cells, Micro sensors and cameras. Create a human to machine interface, create a brain cloud, we need a brain app store like play store for brain apps, like you should be able to download a specific set of skills.

  • Reply Anusha V Kshatriya September 22, 2018 at 12:44 am

    Please answer my question in instagram

  • Reply ?ʂ ơ ŋ ɠ ơ ƙ ų 'PRO September 22, 2018 at 1:28 am

    Bolsonaro mito 2018 todo mundo pra direita aeee

  • Reply 1,000 subscribers with no videos challenge September 22, 2018 at 2:10 am

    lol they could make there channel say it has 2 billion subscribers

  • Reply Tushar DS September 22, 2018 at 3:08 am

    What should I do to get a job of R&D in that thing?
    I am a student and I am interested in both computer science (specifically AI) and biology. I want to pursue a career in this. Any advice please 🙂

  • Reply Bryan Holmes September 22, 2018 at 3:21 am

    Untangling complex co-morbid disease states in areas such as mental health is the future of treating the whole person

  • Reply alim yuparham September 22, 2018 at 3:27 am

    tag : alim yuparham

  • Reply Be Happy September 22, 2018 at 3:28 am


  • Reply Mahesh R September 22, 2018 at 4:17 am

    I am going to change the world! 😠

  • Reply Amit kumar singh September 22, 2018 at 8:09 am


  • Reply Mike Downes September 22, 2018 at 8:10 am

    super valuable video the team made here, brilliantly well made and shout out to Nat at 3:42 in the selfie .. o/ ..

  • Reply A. Alexander September 22, 2018 at 8:35 am

    It's like a jungle sometimes it makes me wonder how can keep from going UNDER?

  • Reply Akanksha Thokade September 22, 2018 at 12:02 pm

    This completely reminds me of Baymax!! I just can't wait to actually strive hard to work for those who need me and assisstghem to my fullest capability!

    Ooh.. I sound like I'm trying to impress my interviewer or something.. but who cares? I really wanna do something good with my life, and Google just inspires me more and more!

  • Reply Paul Doucin September 22, 2018 at 1:17 pm

    Please keep doing good things

  • Reply Lilesh Gawande September 22, 2018 at 3:09 pm

    Wow Google .
    Desire to be part of this community soon.

  • Reply Cuplis Dimas September 23, 2018 at 12:25 am

    Please lm from indonesian fast to project ara smartphone

  • Reply YouTube Channel September 23, 2018 at 2:53 am

    So when google hits a YouTube milestone do they send the plaque to themselves😂

  • Reply Mmo srup September 23, 2018 at 12:00 pm


  • Reply Mmo srup September 23, 2018 at 12:00 pm


  • Reply nonchalantd September 23, 2018 at 12:57 pm

    All your base are belong to us

  • Reply pierre ronald September 24, 2018 at 1:54 am


  • Reply Milo Szecket September 25, 2018 at 12:35 am

    You guys were at SIGGRAPH. Did any of you happen to see Quantitative Imaging's talk on the intersection of graphics and medicine? You guys should talk with them, maybe you could help.

  • Reply Vasukipriya K N September 26, 2018 at 5:05 pm

    When Google pixel 3 will release?

  • Reply 松发洪 September 26, 2018 at 9:47 pm

    AI for censorship

  • Reply Vete Wey Viur fkiu September 26, 2018 at 11:22 pm


  • Reply 496 September 27, 2018 at 3:58 am

    Jeff Dean.
    He is a god.

  • Reply LINES TELECOM sellers of landline telephones September 27, 2018 at 11:10 am

  • Reply Steven Lechner September 28, 2018 at 1:04 am

    Please..let's be real. It's not intelligence. It algorithmic response. There is no sentient behavior response.

  • Reply BammBammHard September 28, 2018 at 6:16 am

    Count me in Google, turn me cyborg

  • Reply قناة الاشتراكات September 28, 2018 at 12:53 pm

    Hey Google 👋🏼 hire me please

  • Reply Godess of gold September 28, 2018 at 2:21 pm

    Google I love you so much, I can't survive without you.
    Thank you so much for being there for me.
    Everyday I learn something new, congratulations 💕💕 you make a difference .

  • Reply Chubby Arctic Fox September 28, 2018 at 4:26 pm


  • Reply Denise Mackritis September 28, 2018 at 4:58 pm


  • Reply Esperança Universal October 1, 2018 at 5:45 am

    7 links
    Super inscrito

  • Reply The Real Michael Vargas October 1, 2018 at 2:28 pm

    Google :

  • Reply Md. Muqaddis Alam Emon October 2, 2018 at 5:31 am

    If i work in google.

  • Reply Gurdeep Singh Dhindsa October 2, 2018 at 10:17 am

    Carry on

  • Reply Zachary Mitchell October 2, 2018 at 7:40 pm


  • Reply Lydia Xavier October 2, 2018 at 11:32 pm

    Thank you Google. I've been living with type 1 diabetes since I was two years old. I'd say this is just in time for me.

  • Reply qwMF05gCPT October 9, 2018 at 12:58 am

    It's nat from Nat and friends

  • Reply Pratheep Anumaty October 10, 2018 at 12:46 pm


  • Reply cracking pirates October 21, 2018 at 12:05 pm

    Please make a video on AI at physics.

  • Reply Eve Of Eden October 23, 2018 at 8:20 pm


  • Reply Michelle Palmer October 29, 2018 at 6:42 am

    New reasearch promises real hope for brain deasese

  • Reply Michelle Palmer October 29, 2018 at 6:43 am

    Help with donations

  • Reply Eyüp Şimşek November 9, 2018 at 8:11 am

    hopefully into the future..

  • Reply Sezgin Bilir November 9, 2018 at 1:32 pm

    Thanks Google I wish you success

  • Reply Richard Jenkins November 10, 2018 at 12:39 am

    Awesome work!! Only point i dont agree with is at 6:45. The study of the eyes, Iridology, has done this for a long time. Would be great to see this technology used to expand the studies into the eyes and look forward to what else can be achieved 🙂

  • Reply İşsiz Nette November 11, 2018 at 8:14 am

    Vay babayın gözü.

  • Reply Mert Oztopcu November 12, 2018 at 3:37 pm

    And this is the way Google is going to make more money in another field no one knew they could go to.

  • Reply Maruba Silaen December 15, 2018 at 4:00 pm


  • Reply Maruba Silaen December 15, 2018 at 4:01 pm


  • Reply Maruba Silaen December 15, 2018 at 4:01 pm

    Kyrieo Elescio, Lord

  • Reply Rinesh Andrews February 12, 2019 at 9:01 am

    Waiting for more videos Nat

  • Reply kunal patel October 25, 2019 at 6:30 am

    AI is born for medical, economy, education.

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