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ALS – Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis | Miscellaneous | Heatlh & Medicine | Khan Academy

December 18, 2019

– ALS or Amyotrophic Lateral
Sclerosis is an extremely debilitating and usually fatal disease and it’s a horrible disease. You have your motor neurons,
the neurons that are essentially activating your
muscles, telling your muscles when to twitch or when to
contract and that these neurons, these cells that traverse,
that go from your brain all the way to your muscles, so there’s these unusually long cells. They go through your spinal
cord, they degenerate. They degenerate and as they degenerate, there’s no way for your
brain to send the signals to your muscles to do the
things that your muscles need to do and so your muscles atrophy and so that’s actually
where the first part of ALS comes from, the “A” in ALS, Amyotrophic. “A” means no or not or
kind of the opposite. “Myo” means, is referring to muscle and ‘trophic” is nourishment,
so this is one way to think about it is “no muscle nourishment”, but what’s really happening
is that the muscles start to die away because
they’re no longer to be– They can no longer be activated
because, I guess you could say, the wires or motor
neurons that would normally activate them, they degenerate
and what’s especially horrible about this is,
obviously, it causes paralysis, people lose control over
basic things including their speech, is the whole time that
this is happening and this is degenerating, the individual
in question has full mental awareness, so they’re fully
aware of what’s going on in their body so you could imagine
it’s a fairly horrible thing for people to go through and
there have been many famous cases of people with ALS, most
famously probably Lou Gehrig. In fact, ALS in the U.S.,
at least, is often called Lou Gehrig’s disease, one
of the most famous baseball players of all time for
the New York Yankees. He died of ALS, really,
when he was about my age in his late 30s. Stephen Hawking, he is one of
the small percentage of ALS sufferers who have been
able to live several decades past his diagnosis. It effects one to two out of
100,000 individuals each year. So if you were to imagine kind
of a large stadium of people, in a given year you would expect to– If you say there’s roughly
100,000 people here, you would expect one to two of them to get afflicted with ALS. The reason why it’s important
to have research behind this is it’s a very, a very not
so well understood disease. People know what happens. They know that the motor
neurons degenerate, but they don’t know why it’s happening. There is– Scientists have identified some
genetic component to ALS for some of the sufferers, but
for the majority, they can’t identify a genetic component
and it’s unclear what environmental components are causing it, although people think there
must be some environmental components, but as far as
most people can tell it just randomly afflicts people once
they kind of get into their early middle age, so it’s a
really, really horrible disease and it’s really important that
people have awareness for it and that there is an
appropriate level of funding and in case you’re wondering, yes, I did take the ice
bucket challenge as well. I have been challenged by
Shawn O’Sullivan to do the ice bucket challenge,
so I’m about to do it. Y’all ready? – Girl: Yeah
– Boy: Yeah – [Voiceover] : (giggling) – Ah. – [Voiceover] : (laughing) – I’d now like to issue the
challenge to three other people. The other Salman Khan,
famous Bollywood actor. Esther Cho, who works
with me at Khan Academy and my kids, who seemed
too happy to see myself get doused with cold water.


  • Reply Someone Super Cool August 26, 2014 at 12:22 am

    Is that your version of the ice bucket challenge? lol 😛

  • Reply GENIUS316 August 26, 2014 at 12:31 am

    "Today I consider myself the luckiest man on the face of the Earth" -Lou Gehrig a legend and a man affected by this horrible disease

  • Reply Dia Jasin August 26, 2014 at 12:32 am

    This video should top the other videos cuz it raise awareness

  • Reply EpistemicPolymath August 26, 2014 at 12:39 am

    Now that is how you spread awareness!

  • Reply Alison Liu August 26, 2014 at 12:40 am

    I love you sal and I love khan academy!!!

  • Reply James Jones August 26, 2014 at 12:43 am

    Good job as always Sal

  • Reply max August 26, 2014 at 12:51 am

    This is awesome

  • Reply ares106 August 26, 2014 at 1:02 am

    Your doing this crap too? Come on Khan I thought you where cool.

  • Reply Saif S August 26, 2014 at 1:07 am

    By nominating Salman Khan, the actor, he'll be spreading awareness to a whole region of the world (if he accepts the challenge, of course).

  • Reply THE16THPHANTOM August 26, 2014 at 1:10 am

    i have seen your habitat…your home.
    you're a surprisingly regular guy, just with big brain, and more smarts.

  • Reply Zachary Arredondo August 26, 2014 at 2:05 am

    Sal challenging the other Salman Khan just made my day.

  • Reply TheTranMan23 August 26, 2014 at 2:13 am

    hahaha, awesome Khan!

  • Reply Joe Mc'Laughlin August 26, 2014 at 2:27 am

    Ice bucket "receipt" challenge!!!!

  • Reply ybbolb August 26, 2014 at 2:53 am

    Only 27% of funds received goes into research.

  • Reply Jessie Silbaugh August 26, 2014 at 3:05 am

    If you could, Sal, please make another video discussing current therapy and experimental treatments. I would be extremely interested in learning about some of them. Fantastic video.

  • Reply mhtinla August 26, 2014 at 3:49 am

    If Khan, Justin Bieber, and Britney Spears all did it, it must be a worthy fad.
    I heard Obama refused to do it !!!

  • Reply Madagascar Sapphire August 26, 2014 at 4:13 am

    I only wish people have more appreciation for "water" and stop this nonsense.

    ALS is a genetic disease affecting primary European descents.
    If people just accept and let evolution through natural selection take its course and understand the balance it will achieve instead of this emotion based science they will do better.

    Eventually the surviving individuals will be healthier and more adapting.

    Awareness is always a good thing. In this case, it is overrated and unfortunately misguided.

    Always question EVERYTHING!

  • Reply Kc August 26, 2014 at 5:28 am

    Everyone should quit school and just watch your videos o.o

  • Reply SpeedingSideway STi August 26, 2014 at 6:49 am

    So if you say put yourself in a ice bath or put your head in ice bath for ( amount of time ). is it possible to induce a temporal ALS effect for a felt-able time??

  • Reply Holic Shot August 26, 2014 at 7:21 am

    Thank you for making this.

  • Reply Christopher Nguyen August 26, 2014 at 7:34 am

    You know what? All other videos should be named like this one instead of ice bucket challenge. Generate the same awareness and also states what ALS stands for. 

  • Reply Michael Duda August 26, 2014 at 7:36 am

    Looking good, Mr Khan. But it bears pointing out that all the money raised won't go to research; they also provide patient care. I think that cuts to the national research budget and inadequate health care are the root problems that need a powerful lobby. 

  • Reply the9thGen August 26, 2014 at 8:17 am

    the voices sound so different

  • Reply Psquared August 26, 2014 at 9:41 am

    Thank you, Sal! 🙂

  • Reply bidhut karki August 26, 2014 at 2:12 pm

    omg my two hero know each other.. Salman Khan know Salman Khan.. that is quite exciting..

  • Reply Shiva Naidoo August 26, 2014 at 5:17 pm

    LOOOLL!!! The Other Salman Khan! Both are my dudes! 🙂

  • Reply R Dahal August 26, 2014 at 10:04 pm

    Love how you've nominated Salman Khan. Thank you for the information on ALS, makes sense to know more about it than to just do the challenge. thumbs up

  • Reply DrStrangeLove2050 August 26, 2014 at 10:04 pm

    Ice Bucket Challenge  in  Khan-style!!

  • Reply Andrew Johnston August 26, 2014 at 11:00 pm

    Great stuff!

  • Reply Abhinav Khanna August 26, 2014 at 11:28 pm

    Dear Mr. Khan sir,
    I would like to point out a technical difference, although it is possible I may altogether be quite wrong, giving the fact that I am neither a doctor by profession, nor as knowledgeable as you are.
    There is a difference between Lou Gehrig's disease or also called as ALS and Motor Neuron Disease. There are various kinds of MND (4 I believe) out of which ALS is one of them. Stephen Hawking does not have ALS, he has MND (one of the remaining 3 kinds, which one it is not possible to tell without performing a spinal autopsy, which can only be done after his death, for the  obvious reasons). Him having MND, is one of the many reasons he has been able to live quite long. ALS, as you know has a lot lower life expectancy, with it decreasing as and when the diagnosis take places at a later age. About 4% of the people last more than 10 years, and almost no one has lasted as long as Mr. Hawking. He has MND, not ALS.

  • Reply PTD August 27, 2014 at 12:04 pm

    another salman Khan :))

  • Reply tayibveligeorge August 27, 2014 at 12:05 pm

    you r d best Sal!!!

  • Reply Madagascar Sapphire August 27, 2014 at 7:33 pm

    Steven Loomis,

    You should thank you god for being able to simply turn a faucet to get water whenever you want.

    As you run and waste that water just remember that there are millions who have limited access to this precious resource! And many day from polluted or contaminated water.

  • Reply saracasm.x August 28, 2014 at 2:19 am

    Awe your kids are SO cute! I wish to see them do the ice bucket challenge 🙂

  • Reply Arisha Nazir August 28, 2014 at 6:09 pm

    This is great! I love how you nominated the 'other' Salman Khan love it!

  • Reply Penina S. Finger August 31, 2014 at 1:37 am

    We have an immediate family member suffering from this disease, and are grateful for this video. It adds to increased awareness and has raised a lot of money, which we appreciate.

    I don't have the exact numbers in front of me, but awareness of ALS through the ice bucket campaign has been significantly increased. Funds raised for research also dramatically exceeded expectations.

    Indirect benefits: other nonprofits are taking note. It's my hope that a cause that is as close to home for you will be inspired to create an upbeat and wildly successful campaign, and bring more issues closer to resolution.

  • Reply Matthew Lahman August 31, 2014 at 2:05 am

    It's caused by acidic lymphatic accumulations that degenerate the nervous system. The cure is a raw food diet, aggressive juicing and sunshine in your eyes. The raw food and juicing dissolve and cleanse out the accumulations damaging the nerves and preventing the immune system from repairing and the photons entering the eyes directly powers the DNA regeneration process and recharges the CNS to amplify the nerve signals to overcome the impedance by the interstitial lymphatic residues. The residues are generated by meat, dairy and cooked grains.

  • Reply Zach Alan August 31, 2014 at 3:05 pm

    I laughed hard when he said the other Salman Khan.

  • Reply alfredo gomez September 1, 2014 at 7:57 pm

    Its the mother of all diseases

  • Reply alfredo gomez September 1, 2014 at 8:00 pm

    ares106 You must be crap yourself. 

  • Reply Lee Jason September 3, 2014 at 10:10 pm

    Please Support me for my Education!

  • Reply Matías Bruno September 13, 2014 at 9:36 pm

    Wow, the video tutorial about the ALS really makes a difference here, thanks.

  • Reply Prateek Shukla September 17, 2014 at 9:52 pm

    Nice video but i still dint u derstand the reason behind the ice bucket challenge. Can u put some light on that?

  • Reply mywavesofgrain March 31, 2016 at 7:49 pm

    Oh your kids loved that I bet! ! Thank you for everything you do at Khan Academy! Also in more recent years ALS Steve Gleason from the New Orleans Saints.

  • Reply Ashwin Ramaswamy April 12, 2017 at 4:50 pm

    3:51 Mispronounced 'criminal' there

  • Reply Mercer Musculoskeletal 2018 April 20, 2017 at 3:05 am

    Love the subtle UGA shout-out

  • Reply graciously grace June 25, 2017 at 12:15 pm

    I thought it was meant for medical students :/

  • Reply Jordan Weil July 20, 2017 at 3:38 am

    Really great video, but I'd be worried about anyone studying from this material. The upper motor neuron drawing around 53 seconds is wrong. Upper motor neurons end when they synapse on the lower motor neuron in spinal cord (or thereabouts: anterior grey matter, cranial nerve nuclei, etc.). Upper motor neurons don't touch muscles. ALS degrades both upper and lower motor neurons. That has a huge affect on the way that the disease presents. The explanation that the muscles atrophy simply from disuse is misleading – it makes it sounds like using the muscle (action potential firing) is the primary thing that maintains muscle bulk. Nerves provide trophic factors to muscles that prevent atrophy.

  • Reply Muzzammil Sayyad September 4, 2017 at 1:39 pm

    learn something from osmosis

  • Reply Rafael Figueroa October 9, 2017 at 3:55 am

    There are a few components to treating ms at home. One resource I discovered which succeeds in merging these is the Denelle Multi Care (check it out on google) without a doubt the most useful resource that I have ever seen. Check out all the great info .

  • Reply Atheer November 14, 2017 at 9:01 pm

    How is that supposed to help me for my exam ? Well thanks anyway ?❤️

  • Reply Piotr Czary December 19, 2017 at 2:48 pm

    it is about fascia not muscles.

  • Reply Percy Carry December 29, 2017 at 6:52 pm

    Lou Gehrig is not the greatest baseball player of all time.

  • Reply Bulmaro perez February 2, 2018 at 4:50 am

    My brother has ALS and his is not genetic his is sporadic

  • Reply Bulmaro perez February 2, 2018 at 4:56 am

    And its a HORRIBLE. disease!!! And my brother is only 34! He got diagnosed when he was 30. He has 2 daughters that keep him fighting daily he wishes he could hold he wishes he can feed them run with them even talk to them. But ALS is doing its thing and we are losing my brother. But seeing him and other families go through this makes me not take for granted every movement that i can make on my own!

  • Reply Zero To Hero March 19, 2018 at 3:40 am

    RIP steve hawkings

  • Reply 4VeganLife May 13, 2018 at 5:27 pm

    Look into spiders

  • Reply Hafizah Hoshni August 10, 2018 at 5:52 pm

    Amazing! I am so thankful for sharing your expertise and knowledge. Thank you so much! 11/8/2018

  • Reply Corrine Gaffin August 17, 2018 at 8:15 am

    i was diagnosed 2011. i was diagnosed with the bulbar form of ALS and was given one year to live. My symptoms progressed quickly. Soon i was having difficulty breathing, swallowing and even walking short distances. With the help of Natural Herbal Garden natural herbs I have been able to reverse my symptoms using diet, herbs, which i feel has made the most difference. The ALS natural formula immensely helped my condition, it reversed my ALS. my slurred speech. And then the inability to eat without getting choked, breathing, and coughing. gradually disappeared. Visit NATURAL HERBAL GARDENS via their official web-site www. naturalherbalgardens. com. I’m now playing golf again. and i turned 69 today. i am glad to get my life back DON’T GIVE UP HOPE!!!

  • Reply Dora Robison October 2, 2018 at 2:57 am

    What is the "ice bucket challenge"??

  • Reply nohashtags November 1, 2018 at 4:31 am

    If you are a medical student ..skip this video. Nothing informative . All it says it's a bad disease. WE KNOW!!!!

  • Reply Charles Smith November 29, 2018 at 5:55 pm

    Stages of disease of ALS in my thoughts….
    1. Nerve tingling in a localized area
    2. Partial paralysis or unusual movements in part of your body.
    3. Complete paralysis of one part of the body.
    4. Complete paralysis to other parts of the body, including reduced ability of speaking/swallowing/breathing
    (Usually at that point, the paralysis is irreversible and permanent)
    5. Being completely bedridden and/or total loss of speaking/worsening breathing problems/heart problems (this also affects the brain and its nerves get irreversibly damaged)
    6. END STAGE – heart and lung function gets totally overpowered to the point of multi-organ failure/septic crisis/mutli-organ failure, and death is certain. (The end stage of ALS is almost like the end-stage of Alzheimer's – both these end-stages will 100 percent certainly lead to death!!!!)

  • Reply Oum Abdallah أم عبد الله December 2, 2018 at 12:50 pm

    السلام عليكم
    عندي هاد المرض هل هناك احدا يترجملي بالعربية لاني لا اعرف الانكليزية

  • Reply Joe December 10, 2018 at 9:49 pm

    I've been listing to your voice for years. You look nothing like the robot I imagined was behind these videos.

  • Reply jodie michel July 28, 2019 at 10:32 am

    ALS Antar Lintas Sumatera

  • Reply Morris Jay TV August 18, 2019 at 8:31 am

    My mom have this ALS since 2007 to present. the doctor said before she's only got 3years and luckily she's with us until now. 12years since then and i hope more and more years to come for my mother :'(

  • Reply Crazy Matuler Boy November 8, 2019 at 3:14 am

    My brother has this I have a few videos of him check them out on my page

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